Common Chemicals

Name Formula Note
1-butanol CH3(CH2)3OH Flammable, liquid
1, 2-ethanediol (dihydroxy,
ethane, ethylene glycol, glycol)
1, 3-dymethyl
2-butoxyethanol C4H9 x O x CH2 x CH2)H Liquid
n-butyl alcohol Normal butyl alcohol Liquid
Acetic acid (HAc, HOAc) CH3COOH Toxic (custic)
Acetone CH3COCH3 -
Acetic anhydride (CH3CO)2O Toxic
Acetone sodium bisulfite CH3COCH3 x NaHSO3 Toxic
Acetylacetone C5H8O2 Flammable, liquid
Acetylene C2H2 -
Aluminium chloride AlCl3 Crystalline
Alum (Potassium) K2Al3(SO4)4 x 24H2O -
Ammonia NH3 Toxic, gas
Ammonium bifluoride NH4F x HF Toxic
Ammyl alcohol CH3(CH2)3 x CH2OH Flammable, liquid
Ammonium fluoride NH4F -
Ammonia water NH3 + H2O Toxic, liquid
Ammonium molybdate (NH4)6Mo7O2x 4 x 4H2O Crystals
Ammonium acetate CH3COONH4 Crystalline
Ammonium chloride NH4Cl Crystalline
Ammonium dicitrate C6H14N2O7 Crystalline
Ammonium ditartrate (NH4)2C2H4O6 Crystalline
Ammonia hydoxide NH4OH Toxic, liquid
Ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4)HF2 Crystalline
Ammonium paramolybdate (NH4)6Mo7O24 x 4H2O Crystalline (molybdic acid)
Ammonium peroxydisulfate (NH4)2S2O8 Crystalline
Ammonium polysulfide (NH4)2Sx Toxic, liquid
Ammonium thiosulfate (NH4)2S2O3 Crystalline
Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 -
Ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 -
Antimony trichloride SbCl3 -
Antimony trisulfide Sb2S3 -
Arsenic trioxide As2O3 -
Argon Ar Gas
Arsine AsH4 -
Barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 -
Barium oxide BaO -
Beetsugar C6H12O6 Glucose
Benzene C6H6 -
Bismuth chloride BiCl4 -
Bismuth trioxide Bi3O3 -
Bleaching powder CaCl(OCl) Bleach
Borax Na2B4O7 x 10 H2O -
Boric acid B(OH)2 -
Bromine Br2 Toxic, liquid
Benzalkonium chloride Essentially alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-
ammonium chloride.
Butyl carbitol Diethylene glycol mono-butyl ether Liquid
Butyl cellosolve 2-butoxyethanol Liquid
Calcium carbonate CaCO3 -
Calcium fluoride CaF2 -
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 -
Calcium oxide CaO Lime
Cane sugar C12H22O11 Sucrose
Cadmium chloride CdCl2 x H2O Toxic, Crystalline
Carbolic acid C6H5OH -
Carbon disulfide CS2 -
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 -
Chloroform CHC12 -
Carbitol Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether Liquid
Cadmium acetate Cd(C2H3O2)2 Toxic, Crystalline
Cerium (IV) nitrate Ce(NO3)4 Crystalline
Cellosolve ethylene glycol monoethyl ether Liquid
Chromium anhydride See chromic acid -
Chromium (III) oxide Cr2O3 Crystalline
Chromium (VI) oxide (Chromic acid) CrO3 Toxic, crystalline
Citric acid C6H8O7 x H2O Crystalline
Copper (II) ammonium chloride (NH4)2[CuCl4] x 2H2O Toxic, crystalline
Copper ammonium persulfate [Cu(NH3)4]S2O8 Crystalline
Copper (II) chloride CuCl2 x H2O Toxic, crystalline
Copper (II) nitrate Cu(NO3)2 x 6H2O Toxic, crystalline
Copper nitrate Cu(No3)2 -
Copper (II) sulfate CuSO4 x 5H5O Toxic, crystalline
Copper sulfate CuSO4 -
Cupric chloride CuCl2 Crystalline
Copper oxide CuO -
Diborane B2H6 -
Diethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2)2O Liquid
Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether See butyl carbitol -
Diethylene glycol
monoethyl ether
See ether -
Diethyl ether See ether -
Ethane C2H6 -
Ethanethiol C6H14O2 Flammable, liquid
Ethanol, ethyl alcohol (EOH) C2H5OH Flammable, liquid
Ethylene glycol C2H6O2
fFlammable, liquid
Ethly ether (ether) C2H5OC2H6 Flammable, liquid
Ethylene glycol
monobutyl ether
2-butoxyethanol Liquid
Ethylene glycol (EG) CH2OHCH2OH -
Ethylene C2H4 -
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether See cellosolve -
Ethylenediamine (ED) NH2(CH2)NH2 -
Ferrous acetate Fe(C2H3O2)2 x 4H2O Liquid
Ferric chloride FeCl3 Crystalline
Ferric oxide Fe2O3 Red ocher (rouge)
Ferric oxide Fe(OH) Yellow/tan roughe
Ferric oxide Fe3O4 Black rouge
Ferric nitrate Fe(NO3)3 x 9H2O Crystals
Ferric sulphide FeS -
Fluoboric acid HBF4 Toxic, liquid
Formic acid HCOOH Fructose, liquid
Fruit sugar C6H12O6 -
Glycerol (glycerine) C3H8O3
Glucose C6H12O6 -
Gold (III) chloride AuCl3 x H2O Crystalline
Hydrochloric acid HCl (95 %) Muriatic acid, Toxic, liquid
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) HF (49 %) Toxic, liquid
Hydrogen H2 Explosive, gas, flammable
Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 (30 %) Peroxide, liquid
Hydrogen sulfide H2S Toxic, gas
Hypochlorous acid HClO4 -
Iodic acid HIO3 -
Iodoform CHI3 -
Iron (III) chloride FeCl3 x 6H2O Crystalline
Iron (III) nitrate Fe(NO3)3 x 9H2O Crystalline
Iron (II) sulfate FeSO4 x 7H2O Crystalline
Lactic acid C3H6O3 Liquid
Lactose C12H2O11 -
Lead acetate Pb(CH3COO)2 Toxic, crystalline
Lead sulphite PbSO4 Crystalline
Lead chloride PbCl3 -
Lead chromate PbCrO4 -
Lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 -
Lead oxide PbO -
Lime CaO -
Litharge PbO -
Lithium chloride LiCl -
Magnesium oxide (Magnesia) MgO Crystalline
Magnesium chloride MgCl2 Toxic, crystalline
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 Milk of magnesia
Maltose C12H22O11 -
Manganese dioxide MnO2 -
Mercury (II) nitrate Hg(NO3)2 x 8H2O Toxic, crystalline
Mercury chloride HgCl2 Toxic, crystalline
Mercury nitrate Hg2(NO3)2 -
Methane CH4 -
Methyl alcohol, methanol (MeOH) CH3OH Toxic, liquid
Methyl ether CH3OCH3 -
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) - -
Meta-Nitrobenzene sulphonic NO2 x C6H4 x SO3H Toxic, liquid
Molybdic acid See ammonium molybdate Crystals
Muriatic acid Technical grade HCl Liquid
Nitric acid HNO3 Toxic, liquid
Nitric acid HNO3 (70 %) White fuming
Nitric acid HNO3 (72 %) Yellow fuming
Nitric acid HNO3 (74 %) Red fuming
Nitrogen N2 Gas
Oxalic acid C2H2O4 x 2H2O Toxic, crystalline
Perchloric acid HClO4 Toxic, liquid
Perchloroethylene (PCE) C2Cl4 Perk
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Toxic, liquid
Phosphine PH3 -
Phosphorous pentoxide P2O5 -
Plaster of Paris CaSO4 (+H2O) -
Picric acid C6H3N3O7 Toxic, explosive, crystalline
Potassium bicarbonate KHCO3 Crystalline
Potassium bromide KBr -
Potassium carbonate K2CO3 Crystalline
Potassium chloride KCl Crystalline
Potassium chlorate KClO3 -
Potassium cyanide KCN Toxic, crystalline
Potassium dichromate K2Cr2O7 Toxic, crystalline
Potassium ferricyanide K3[Fe(CN)6] Crystalline
Potassium ferrocyanide K4[Fe(CN)6] Crystalline
Potassium hydrate solution KOH + H2O Toxic, liquid
Potassium hydrogen fluoride KHF2 Crystalline
Potassium hydrogen sulfate KHSO4 Crystalline
Potassium hydroxide KOH Toxic, crystalline
Potassium iodide KI Crystalline
Potassium metabisulfite K2S2O5 Crystalline
Potassium nitrate KNO3 Crystalline
Potassium nitrite KNO2 -
Potassium phthalate (di-) C8H4K2O4 Crystalline
Potassium permanganate KMnO4 Crystalline
Potassium sulfate K2SO4 -
Potassium thiocyanate KSCN Toxic, crystalline
Propane C3H6 -
Propionic acid CH3CH2COOH -
(Iso)propyl alcohol (ISO, ISO4) C3H7OH -
Pyrocatechol (P) C6H4(OH)2 -
Pyrophosphoric acid H4PO4; anhydrous Crystals or viscous liquid
Quinone C6H4O2 -
Selenic acid H2SeO4 Liquid
Silver bromide AgBr -
Silver chloride AgCl -
Silver cyanide AgCN Toxic, crystalline
Silver iodide AgI -
Silver nitrate AgNO3 Crystalline
Soap 3C17H35O -
Sodium bisulphite Na2S3O5 Crystalline
Sodium bicarbonate NaCHO3 Crystalline
Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 x 10H2O Crystalline
Sodium chloride NaCl Crystalline
Sodium chromate Na2CrO4 Crystalline
Sodium cyanide NaCN Toxic, crystalline
Sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7 x 2H2O Crystalline
Sodium fluoride NaF Crystalline
Sodium hydrogen phosphate Na2HPO4 x 12H2O Crystalline
Sodium hydroxide NaOH Toxic, crystalline
Sodium iodide NaI -
Sodium molybdate Na2MoO4 x 2H2O Liquid
Sodium nitrate NaNO3 Crystalline
Sodium sulfate Na2SO4 Crystalline
Sodium sulfate, anhydrous Na2SO4 Crystalline
Sodium sulfide Na2S Crystalline
Sodium tetraborate Na2B4O7 Crystalline
Sodium thiocyanate NaSCN Crystalline
Sodium thiosulfate (fixer) Na2S2O3 x 5H2O Crystalline
Spirits of ammonia NH3 + H2O Toxic, liquid
Stannic chloride SnCl5 -
Stannous chloride SnCl2 Crystalline
Stearic acid C17H3 x 5COOH -
Strontium chloride SrCl3 -
Strontium nitrate Sr(NO3)2 -
Sucrose C12H22O11 -
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 (95 %) Toxic, liquid
Sulfamic acid NH2SO3H Liquid
Sulfur dioxide SO2 -
Sulfur trioxide SO3 -
Tartaric acid C4H6O6 Liquid
Thioglycolic acid HSCH2COOH Liquid
Thiourea CS(NH2)2 Crystalline
Tin (II) chloride SnCl2 x 2H2O Toxic, crystalline
Toluene C6HC5H3 -
Turpentine C10H16 -
Vogel's special reagent Mixture of tar and
(stainless steel etchant)
sulfurous acid, boiled
and filtered; protected
Wetting agents Additives for lowering
surface tension
Surface tension
Water H2O Liquid
Xylene C6H4(CH3)2 Flammable, liquid
Zinc chloride ZnCl2 Toxic, crystalline
Zinc oxide ZnO -
Zinc sulfate ZnSO4 -
Zinc dichloride ZrCl2 -
Zirconium iodide ZrI4 -
Zephiran chloride A proprietary material produced in
grades containing about 12 % and 17 %
benzalkonium chloride as active
constituent, plus some ammonium acetate; also called sephiran chloride.
Available from pharmacies.
Aqueous solution

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