Symbol: V
Atomic Number: 23
Atomic Weight: 50.9415
Element Classification: Transition Metal
Discovered By: Nils Gabriel Sefstrom
Discovery Date: 1830 (Sweden)
Name Origin: The scandinavian goddess, Vanadis.

Density (g/cc): 6.11
Melting Point (K): 2160
Boiling Point (K): 3650
Appearance: Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 134
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 8.35
Covalent Radius (pm): 122
Ionic Radius: 59 (+5e) 74 (+3e)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.485
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 17.5
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 460
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 390.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.63
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 650.1
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 0
Electronic Configuration: [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Lattice Structure: Body-Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant (): 3.020
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 7.0
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 628
Vickers Hardness [/MN m-2]: 628

Note: Vanadium is a soft, ductile metal but may be embrittled by hydrogen; otherwise it can be prepared much like a stainless steel. This refractory metal has a body-centered cubic crystal structure and is soft and ductile when pure, but may be brittle in commercial form. Vanadium alloys can be cold worked easily, although they do not work harden appreciably, so it may be difficult to get completely deformation-free microstructures. Attack-polishing additions can be made to the final polishing abrasive slurry, or vibratory polishing may be employed.

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