Nickel

Symbol: Ni
Atomic Number: 28
Atomic Weight: 58.6934
Element Classification: Transition Metal
Discovered By: Axel Cronstedt
Discovery Date: 1751 (Sweden)
Name Origin: German: kupfernickel (false copper).

Density (g/cc): 8.902
Melting Point (K): 1726
Boiling Point (K): 3005
Appearance: Hard, malleable, silvery-white metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 124
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 6.6
Covalent Radius (pm): 115
Ionic Radius: 69 (+2e)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.443
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 17.61
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 378.6
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 375.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.91
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 736.2
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 0
Electronic Configuration: [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Lattice Structure: Face-Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant (): 3.520
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 4.0
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 700
Vickers Hardness [/MN m-2]: 638

Note: Nickel and its alloys have face-centered cubic crystal structures and are prepared in basically the same way as austenitic stainless steels. Pure nickel is more difficult to prepare than the alloys. The Ni-Fe magnetic alloys are rather difficult to prepare scratch free unless vibratory polishing is used. The Monel (Ni-Cu) and the highly corrosion resistant (Ni-Cr-Fe) alloys are more difficult to prepare than nickel-based superalloys. Solution annealed superalloys are always more difficult to prepare than age hardened superalloys.

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