Copper

Symbol: Cu
Atomic Number: 29
Atomic Weight: 63.546
Element Classification: Transition Metal
Discovered By: Known to the ancients
Discovery Date: n/a (Unknown)
Name Origin: Symbol from Latin: cuprum (island of Cyprus famed for its copper mines).

Density (g/cc): 8.96
Melting Point (K): 1356.6
Boiling Point (K): 2840
Appearance: Malleable, ductile, reddish-brown metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 128
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 7.1
Covalent Radius (pm): 117
Ionic Radius: 72 (+2e) 96 (+1e)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.385
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 13.01
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 304.6
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 315.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.90
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 745.0
Oxidation States: 2, 1
Electronic Configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Lattice Structure: Face-Centered Cubic (FCC)
Lattice Constant (): 3.610
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 3.0
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 874
Vickers Hardness [/MN m-2]: 369

Note: Pure copper is extremely ductile and malleable. Copper and its alloys come in a wide range of compositions, including several variants of nearly pure copper for electrical applications to highly alloyed brasses and bronzes and to precipitation hardened high strength alloys. Copper and its alloys can be easily damaged by rough sectioning and grinding practices and the depth of damage can be substantial. Scratch removal, particularly for pure copper and brass alloys, can be very difficult. Following the preparation cycle a brief vibratory polish using colloidal silica is very helpful for scratch removal. Attack-polish additions have been used in the past to improve scratch removal but usually are not necessary using the contemporary method followed by vibratory polishing.

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