Symbol: Sn
Atomic Number: 50
Atomic Weight: 118.71
Element Classification: Other Metal
Discovered By: Known to the ancients.
Discovery Date: n/a (Unknown)
Name Origin: Named after Etruscan god, Tinia; symbol from Latin: stannum (tin).

Density (g/cc): 7.31
Melting Point (K): 505.1
Boiling Point (K): 2543
Appearance: Silvery-white, soft, malleable and ductile metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 162
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 16.3
Covalent Radius (pm): 141
Ionic Radius: 71 (+4e) 93 (+2)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.222
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 7.07
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 296
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 170.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.96
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 708.2
Oxidation States: 4, 2
Electronic Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Lattice Structure: Tetragonal (TET)
Lattice Constant (): 5.820
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 1.5
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 51

Note: Tin, which is allotropic with a body-centered tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature, is soft and malleable and less sensitive to twinning than some other low melting point metals. Due to their low melting points, and low recrystallization temperatures, cold setting resins are usually recommended as recrystallization may occur during hot compression mounting. Heating of surfaces during grinding must be minimized. Grinding of these metals is always difficult, as SiC particles tend to embed heavily. Many authors have recommended coating the SiC paper surface with bees wax, but this does not solve the problem. Embedding is most common with the finer grit size papers. Diamond is not a very effective abrasive with these metals. Alumina works quite well.

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