Symbol: Sb
Atomic Number: 51
Atomic Weight: 121.760
Element Classification: Semimetallic
Discovered By: Known to the ancients.
Discovery Date: n/a (Unknown)
Name Origin: Greek: anti and monos (not alone); symbol from mineral stibnite.

Density (g/cc): 6.691
Melting Point (K): 903.9
Boiling Point (K): 1908
Appearance: Hard, silvery-white, brittle semimetal
Atomic Radius (pm): 159
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 18.4
Covalent Radius (pm): 140
Ionic Radius: 62 (+6e) 245 (-3)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.205
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 20.08
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 195.2
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 200.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 2.05
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 833.3
Oxidation States: 5, 3, -2
Electronic Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Lattice Structure: Rhombohedral (RHL)
Lattice Constant (): 4.510
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 3.0
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 294

Note: Pure antimony is quite brittle, but alloys containing Sb are more common. Due to their low melting points, and low recrystallization temperatures, cold setting resins are usually recommended as recrystallization may occur during hot compression mounting. Heating of surfaces during grinding must be minimized. Grinding of these metals is always difficult, as SiC particles tend to embed heavily. Many authors have recommended coating the SiC paper surface with bees wax, but this does not solve the problem. Embedding is most common with the finer grit size papers. Diamond is not a very effective abrasive with these metals. Alumina works quite well.

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