Symbol: W
Atomic Number: 74
Atomic Weight: 183.84
Element Classification: Transition Metal
Discovered By: Juan Jose, Fausto Elhuyar
Discovery Date: 1783 (Spain)
Name Origin: Swedish: tung sten (heavy stone): symbol from its German name wolfram.

Density (g/cc): 19.3
Melting Point (K): 3680
Boiling Point (K): 5930
Appearance: Tough, steel-gray to white metal
Atomic Radius (pm): 141
Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 9.53
Covalent Radius (pm): 130
Ionic Radius: 62 (+6e) 70 (+4e)
Specific Heat (@20C J/g mol): 0.133
Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): (35)
Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 824
Thermal Conductivity (@25C W/m K):
Debye Temperature (K): 310.00
Pauling Negativity Number: 1.7
First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 769.7
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 0
Electronic Configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Lattice Structure: Body-Centered Cubic (BCC)
Lattice Constant (): 3.160
Lattice C/A Ratio: n/a

Mineral Hardness [no units]: 7.5
Brinell Hardness [/MN m-2]: 2570
Vickers Hardness [/MN m-2]: 3430

Note: Tungsten is not too difficult to prepare, although grinding and polishing rates are low. This refractory metal has a body-centered cubic crystal structure and is soft and ductile when pure, but may be brittle in commercial form. Hard carbides and oxides may be present in these metals that introduce relief control problems.

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