Carbide Etchants

(Al, Ti)C carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(Al,Ti)C, VC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(Fe, Si)C carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(Th, U)C with a U/Th ratio of less than 3ThC2 - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(Th, U)C2 carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(Th, U)C2 carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
(U,Pu)C - Chemical etching - General microstructure
0.10C-1.0Si-1.0Mn-20.50Cr-4.75Al - XRD sample preparation
0.37C-1.35Cr-0.40Mo-3.25Ni-0.14V steel - XRD sample preparation
0.37C-1.35Cr-0.40Mo-3.25Ni-0.14V steel - XRD sample preparation
0.37C-1.35Cr-0.40Mo-3.25Ni-0.14V steel - XRD sample preparation
0.37C-1.35Cr-0.40Mo-3.25Ni-0.14V steel - XRD sample preparation
0.52C-15Cr steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
1.12C-11.12Cr-1.48V-2.27W-1.34Mo steel - XRD sample preparation
1.12C-11.12Cr-1.48V-2.27W-1.34Mo steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2067 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2327 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2343 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2343 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2344 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2344 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2344 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2344 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2344 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2345 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2345 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2363 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2378 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2379 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2379 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2550 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2550 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2550 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2550 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2714 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2747 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2747 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2838 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2838 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2838 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2838 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.2838 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3207 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3207 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3207 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3207 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3243 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3343 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3348 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3348 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.3348 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4057 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4057 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4057 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4057 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4057 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4122 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4571 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4747 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4747 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4747 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4762 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4767 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4767 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.4767 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.47C-4.1Cr-4.75V-6.23W-4.80Co - XRD sample preparation
1.53C-4.90Cr-5.0Ni-5.50V - XRD sample preparation
1.5C-4.90Mn-5.0Ni-6.5V steel - XRD sample preparation
1.6773 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.6773 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.6773 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.6773 steel - XRD sample preparation
1.6773 steel - XRD sample preparation
100Cr6 steel - Carbide contrasting
14CrMOV6-3 steel - Sample preparation
14MoV6-3 steel - Electrolytic-potentiostatic isolation of residues
18-8 type 304 stainless steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
20-20 and 25-20 Cr-Ni steels - For distinguishing carbides and sigma phase
29Ni-18Cr steel - XRD sample preparation
AISI 321 stainless steel - Fe-18Cr-8Ni-0.4Ti
AISI 347 stainless steel - Fe-18Cr-8Ni-0.4Nb
AISI T410 martensitic stainless steel - Revealing the grain size
ASTM etchant No. 102 - Fe + 15-30 Cr + 6-40 Ni + <5% steels - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 119 - Mg-Mn alloys - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 13a - Fe + 15-30 Cr + 6-40 Ni + <5% - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 158 - Ta alloys - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 31b - Fe + <1C + <4% additions - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 78 - Fe + 1C + <4% additions - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 83 - Fe + <1C + <4% additions - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 83 - Ni-Cr alloys - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 83 - Ni-Fe alloys - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 83a - Fe + 15-30 Cr + 6-40 Ni + <5% - Electrolytic etching
ASTM etchant No. 85 - Fe + <1C + <4% additions - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 97 - Fe + 15-30 Cr + 6-40 Ni + <5% - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 97 - High temperature steels - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 98 - Fe + 15-30 Cr + 6-40 Ni + <5% - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 98 - Ni-Cr alloys - Chemical etching
ASTM etchant No. 99 - Fe + 16-25 Cr + 3-6 Ni + 5-1C - Chemical etching
Accary etchant - Uranium - Chemical etching
Accary etchant - Uranium - For etching U carbide
Al-Cu alloy - Al-CuAl2 eutectic - Electrolytic polishing
Al2O3 substrate blanks - Gas cleaning
Alloy steel specimens - Color etching - Colors pearlite and hardened structures of unlloyed steel specimens
Alloy steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
Alloy steels - Color etching - For carbon, alloy and Fe-Mn (5-18% Mn) steels
Alloy steels - Color etching - For carbon, alloy and manganese steels - Colors ferrite grains, carbides and phosphides remain white
Alloys of WC and Co - Electrolytic etching
Aqua regia - Austenitic stainless steels
Aqua regia - Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Aqua regia - Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Aqua regia - Stainless steel - Chemical etching
Aqua regia - Stainless steel - Chemical etching
Aqua regia - Wrought heat-resistant steels - Chemical etching
Aqua regia 6% - Cemented carbides (Co) - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Aqua regia, dilute - Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Austenitic stainless steels - Attacks carbides and sigma phase
Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Austenitic stainless steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Austenitic stainless steels and high alloy nickel steels - Electrolytic etching
Austenitic stainless steels and high alloy nickel steels - Electrolytic etching
B-doped SiC - Thermal etching
B4C - Electrolytic etching
B4C - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
B4C - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
BN (100) cubic boron nitride - Metal, removal
Beraha's III etchant - Ni base casting alloys - Chemical etching
Beraha's cadmium sulfide tint etchant - For Fe, steel, and ferritic and martensitic stainless steel - Chemical etching
Beraha's etchant - Iron, steels, cast irons - Tint etchant for pure iron and carbon steels, cast iron, and alloyed steels
Beraha's selenic acid etchant for steels and superalloys - General microstructure
Beraha's sodium molybdate etchant - For steels - General microstructure
Beraha's tint etchant - Austenitic stainless steels, maraging steels, PH gredes
Beraha's tint etchant - Co-based alloys - Tint etching
Beraha's tint etchant - For stainless steels
Beraha's tint etchant - Ni superalloys - Tint etching
Beraha's tint etchant - Ni-base alloys
Beraha`s tint etchant - For Fe, Ni, or Co base heat resistant alloys
Beraha`s tint etchant - For cast iron and steels - General microstructure
Beryllium - Electrolytic polishing and etching
Beryllium oxide (BeO) - Chemical polishing
Berzelius etchant - For dissolving the Fe matrix in the steel samples
Beta SiC thin films grown on Si, (100) wafers - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Beta-SiC thin films grown on (100) silicon - Chemical cleaning
Boron carbide (B4C) - Chemical etching - For revealing dislocations
Boron carbide (B4C) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Boron carbide (B4C) - Electrolytic etching
Boron carbide (B4C) - Electrolytic etching
Boron carbide (B4C) - Electrolytic etching - For revealing dislocations
Boron carbide (B4C) - For revealing dislocations
Boron carbide (B4C) - Physical etching - For revealing dislocations
Boron carbide (BC)-Silicon carbide system (SiC) - Electrolytic etching
Boron carbide B4C - Etching
Carbides in steels - Chemical ecthing
Carbon and alloy steels - Reveals maximum detail in pearlite, untempered and tempered martensite
Carbon specimens - Cemical cleaning
Carbon steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Carbon steels, slloy steels, tool steels - Color etching - For sulfides and other phases
Carbon steels, tool steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Carbon, alloy and Fe-Mn (5-18% Mn) steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Carbon, alloy and manganese steels - Color etching - General microstructure
Cast irons - Color etching - General microstructure
Cast irons - Color etching - General microstructure
Cast irons - Reveals carbide and phosphide distribution
Cast steel - XRD sample preparation
Cast steel - XRD sample preparation
Ce-Mg alloy - Alloys with 0-10 wt.% Mg
Cemented carbides (Co) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cemented carbides (Co) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cemented carbides (Co) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cemented carbides (Co) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cemented carbides - Can be used for all compositions - Chemical etching
Cemented carbides, Kovar (Fe) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - (U, Pu)C high in U. UC-PuN mixtures
Ceramics, carbides (Fe, Si)-(Fe,Si)C - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - (Th, U)C with U/Th ratio, ThC2
Ceramics, carbides - (Th, U)C2 - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - (U, Ou)C high in Pu - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - (U, Pu)C - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - B4C - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - CrC, HfC, VC, (Al, Ti)C - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - KC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - MoC2, CrC2 - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - NbC, NbC2 - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - PuC (dendritic) - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - PuC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - SiC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - SiC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - SiC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - SiC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - Ta(C, N, O) - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - TaC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - ThC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - ThC2 - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - ThO2 - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - TiC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - TiC, TaC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - UC, U(C, O), UC-UC2, UC2-U2C3 mixtures, (U, Pu)C high in C, U(C, N) UC-ZrC
Ceramics, carbides - UC-Cr23C6 mixtures
Ceramics, carbides - UC-Pu mixtures - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides - WC - General microstructure
Ceramics, carbides-ThC - General microstructure
Cerium dicarbide - Chemical etching
Cerium specimens - Chemical solution
Cermets, sintered carbides - Attack polishing
Chemical and electrolytic polishing of cobalt and cobalt alloys
Chrome regia etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Chromium - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Co binder phase - Chemical etching
Co sintered carbides - Chemical etching
Co-Cr-C alloys - Preferential etch for non-carbides
Co-Cr-Ni-Ta carbide alloy - Co-15Cr-25Ni-13Ta
Co-Cr-Ni-W-Si-C alloy - Stellugine 778, Co-25/29Cr-1.3/22.5Ni-1.6/1.7C-8.5/11.5W-0.9/2.7Si
Co-Cr-Ta carbide alloy - Co-15Cr-13Ta
Co-Ni-Cr carbide system - Co2Ni-Cr23C6
Co-Ni-Cr-W-Fe alloy - Haynes No.25 Co-10Ni-20Cr-14W-3Fe (+C)
Co-Ti in carbide system - Co-2.3/5 mol.% TiC
Co-base superalloys, color etchant - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Coated Hastelloy-X - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Coated cutting insert - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cobalt - Cemented carbides with Co binder phase - General microstructure
Cobalt and alloys - Cemented carbides and other Co base alloys
Cobalt and alloys - Grain boundary etchant
Cobalt and alloys - Pure Co, Co-Fe alloys, WC-TiC-NbC-Co type cemented carbides - General microstructure
Cobalt and alloys - WC-TiC-(Ta, Nb)C-Co tye cemented carbides - General microstructure
Cobalt and alloys - WC-TiC-NbC-Co type cemented carbides
Cobalt and alloys - WC-TiC-TaC-Co and WC-NbC-Co type cemented carbides
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Electrolytic polishing
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Kovar (17Co-29Ni, balance Fe) cemented carbides matrix
Cr and CrNi steels - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Cr and Hf carbides - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cr and Mo carbides - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cr carbide-Ni alloy - 83% carbide-15% Ni - General microstructure
Cr-Hf carbide - 0.5 mol % HfC
Cr-Mo steel - Fe-0.1C-2.3Cr-1Mo
Cr-Nb carbide - 0.5 mol % NbC
Cr-Ni-Si steel - Fe-0.3C-1.7Cr-3.5Ni-0.6Si
Cr-Ta carbide - 0.5 mol % TaC
Cr-Ti carbide - 0.5 mol % TiC
Cr-Ti carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cr-Zr carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cr-Zr carbide -0.5 mol % ZrC
CrC and HfC - Chemical etching
CrMo130L steel - XRD sample preparation
CrMo130L steel - XRD sample preparation
CrMo130L steel - XRD sample preparation
Cu single crystal spheres - Thermal forming
Cu-Mg-Ca alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
D43 alloy - Nb-10W-12V-0.1C
Dispersion strengthened ceramics - Thermal etching
Dysprosium - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Emanuel's etchant - Cast steels - Chemical etching
Emanuel's etchant - Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloy - Attacks sigma phase with little or no effect on carbide particles
Erbium alloy - Polishing, chemical etching - General microstructure
Extraction replica etchant for nickel alloys - Chemical etching
Fe as grey iron specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Fe-Cr-C alloy - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Fe-Cr-C alloys - Fe-4.9% Cr-1.1% C
Fe-Mo-C alloy - Fe-0.5/5Mo-1C with impurities
Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloy - Stains austenite, then sigma phase, then carbide particles
Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloys - Electrolytic etching
Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloys - Outlines carbide and sigma
Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloys - Used after Glyceregia; outlines carbides particles, stains sigma phase
Fe-Ni-Mn alloy - Fe-19-24% Ni-3-5% Mn - General microstructure
Fe-Ni-O alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Fe-TiC sintered carbides - Chemical etching
Fe-W-Mo-Cr-V-C alloy - M2 alloy, Fe-3.5W-3Mo-3.5Cr-1V-0.5C
Fe-W-Mo-Cr-V-Cr alloy - Etchants for carbides
GX6CrNi13-4 steel - Electrolytic-potentiostatic isolation of residues
GX6CrNi13-4 steel - Sample preparation
Galvannel and hot-diped galvanized coatings on steels
Glyceregia - Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Gray cast irons - Color etchant - General microstructure
Groesbeck's etchant - Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Groesbeck's etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Groesbeck's etchant - Stainless steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
H13 mod. steel - XRD sample preparation
H13 mod. steel - XRD sample preparation
H13 mod. steel - XRD sample preparation
H13 mod. steel - XRD sample preparation
HAFNIC 10 alloy - Ni-10Cr-5Al-5Co-8.3Hf-1.1Zr-0.7C
Hafnium carbide (HfC) - Chemical polishing
Hastelloy X - Chemical etching
Heat resistant steels - XRD sample preparation
Heat-resisting steels and alloys - Color etching - Colors carbides and phases
Heat-resisting steels and alloys - Color etching - General microstructure
Heat-resisting steels and alloys - Color etching - General microstructure
Heat-resisting steels and alloys - Color etching - General microstructure
HfC carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
High alloy content steels - Revelas different structural constituents in high alloy steels
High carbon steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
High-alloy steels - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Ho-Fe alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Holmium specimens - Sample preparation procedure
IN 738 alloy - Electrolytic-potentiostatic isolation of residues
IN 738 alloy - Sample preparation
Inconel X550, Inco 700, Waspaloy, M252 - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Inconel X550, Inco 700, Waspaloy, and M252 - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Iron and steels - Potentiostatic etching
Iron and steels - Potentiostatic etching
Iron and steels - Potentiostatic etching
Iron and steels - Potentiostatic etching
Iron, steels, cast irons - Carbides and phosphides in low alloy steels
Iron, steels, cast irons - Carbides, nitrides, phosphides, and sulfides are not attacked
Iron, steels, cast irons - Cr and Cr-Ni steels - General microstructure
Iron, steels, cast irons - Fe-Cr-Ni cast alloy - General microstructure
Iron, steels, cast irons - High alloy Cr-Ni steels - General microstructure
Iron, steels, cast irons - High alloy steels - General microstructure
Iron, steels, cast irons - Verification of sigma phase
Kalling's 2 etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Kalling's 2 etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Kovar, cemented carbides - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Laced picric acid etchant - Martensitic chromium steels - Chemical etching
Lanthanum - Chemical polishing and etching
Lead telluride (Pb-Te) system - Electrolytic polishing
Low carbon steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Low carbon steels - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Low carbon steels - Color etchant- General microstructure
Magnesia (MgO) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Magnesia (MgO) - This etch produces pits on single crystal MgO on (100) and (110) faces
Marble's etchant - Stainless steels - General etchant - General microstructure
Martensitic and ferritic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Medium and high carbon steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Medium and high carbon steels - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Metal samples - EBSD sample preparation
MgAl2O4 (spinel) natural crystals - Molten flux decomposition
Microstructures of Cr and CrNi steels - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Mixed sintered carbides - Electrolytic etching
Mo and Mo alloys - Electrolytic polishing
Mo2C specimens - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant - Cast irons - High phosphorus irons
Murakami's etchant - Co-Sn0Sb alloys - For carbides
Murakami's etchant - Fe-Ni-Cr heat resistant casting alloys - Etchant for staining or film forming
Murakami's etchant - Iron - Selective carbides
Murakami's etchant - Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant - Martensitic chromium steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant - SiC alloy with 1% B4C - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant - Silicon carbide (SiC) - For SiSiC
Murakami's etchant - Silver-Tungsten carbide (Ag-WC) - Electric contact material
Murakami's etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant - Stainless steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
Murakami's etchant - WC specimens - Chemical cleaning
Murakami's etchant - WC-Co, Eta phase appears multicolored; Co is white, WC-TiC-TaC-Co, WC-NbC-Co
Murakami's etchant - Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel 706 and alloy 718, carbide particles
Murakami's etchant - Wrought stainless steels - General structure, sigma phase
Murakami's etchant, modified - Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant, modified - Silicon carbide (SiC) - For RSiC - Reveals alpha/beta grain boundaries
Murakami's etchant, modified - Silicon carbide (SiC) - For alpha-SiC - Reveals alpha/alpha and alpha/beta grain boundaries
Murakami's etchant, modified - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant, modified - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Murakami's etchant, modified - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Murakmi's etchant - Austenitic and ferritic-Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching
Murkami's etchant - Steel specimens - Carbide etching
Murkami's etchant - TiC specimens - Chemical cleaning
Nb-N system - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Nb-low carbon alloys - Chemical polishing
NbC and NbC2 - Electrolytic etching
NbC specimens - Chemical etching
NbC/NbC2 - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Ni alloy - XRD sample preparation
Ni alloy - XRD sample preparation
Ni alloy - XRD sample preparation
Ni alloy - XRD sample preparation
Ni alloy - XRD sample preparation
Ni superalloys - Chemical etching
Ni superalloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Ni superalloys - Electrolytic etching
Ni-Al alloy - Al-Al3Ni eutectic
Ni-Cr alloy - Electrolytic polish and etching
Ni-Cr alloys - Etching for carbides
Ni-Cr steel - Fe-3.5Ni-1.7Cr-0.3C - General microstructure
Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo alloys - Hastelloy X Ni-21Cr-18Fe-9Mo (+C)
Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo-Nb alloys - Inconel 718, Ni-19Cr-19Fe-3Mo-5Nb+Al,Ti,C
Ni-Ga alloy - Alloy with approx. 50 at.% Ga
Ni-Mo-Cr-Ti-C alloy - Hastelloy-N, Ni-13Mo-4Cr-2Ti-0.06C
Ni22Cr9Mo steel - Chemical etching
Nickel - Carbides in Ni-Cr alloys
Nickel - Ni and Ni base alloys, Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys
Niobium carbide (NbC) - Dislocation etching
Niobium carbide (NbC) - Thermal etching
Pb-Ag alloys (Pb-rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Ag-Sb alloys (Pb-rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Bi alloys - Chemical and physical etching
Pb-Ca alloys (Pb rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Cd alloys (Pb rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Cd-Sb alloys (Pb rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Li alloys (Pb rich) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb-Sn alloys (Pb rich) - Sample preparation
Pb-Sn-Te system (Pb(1-x)Sn(x))(1-y) Te(y) - Electrolytic polishing and etching
Pb-Te-Fe system - Lead telluride - Iron section
Picral etchant - Carbon and alloy steels - For general structure
Picral etchant - Carbon and alloy steels with medium carbon content - General structure
Picral etchant - Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Plutonium carbide (PuC) - Electrolytical etching
Plutonium oxide (PuO) - Sample preparation
Presence of sigma phase in steel - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Pt-Cr alloys - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Pt-Yb alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pu-Fe-C alloy - Final electrolytic polishing
Pu-In alloys - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
PuC - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
PuC - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Pure U and U alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pyrolytic SiC - Electrolytic etching
Pyromet 860 alloy - Fe-43Ni-12.6Cr-6Mo-4Co-3Ti-1.25Al (+B)
Ruthenium specimens - Sample preparation procedure
SSiC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SSiC Beta/Beta - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SSiC doped with Al - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SSiC doped with B - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Self-bonded SiC - Electrolytic etching
SiC - Chemical etching
SiC - Chemical etching
SiC - Electrolytic etching
SiC - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
SiC - Physical etching - General microstructure
SiC - Physical etching - General microstructure
SiC - Thermal etching
SiC carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SiC reaction bonded - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
SiC with 1% B4C, B doped SiC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SiC with 5-10% oxide additions - Physical etching - General microstructure
SiSiC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
SiSiC - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Sigma phase in austenitic stainless steel weld
Silicon - Sample preparation procedure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Beta SiC with B4C - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Etching of SiC for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Silicon carbide (SiC) - For alpha SiC dosed with B - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - For beta SiC - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - For beta-SiC - Reveals beta/beta grain boundaries
Silicon carbide (SiC) - For pyrolytically manufactured beta SiC - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - HPSiC - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Polycrystalline - Chemical and elctrolytic etching
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Pressureless sintered SiC (alpha and alpha + beta)
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Pressureless sintered SiC dosed with B and Al (alpha and alpha + beta)
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Pyrolytic - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - Si-SiC, infiltrated - Si, alpha and beta are differentiated
Silicon carbide (SiC) - SiC with B - General microstructure
Silicon carbide (SiC) - SiC, infiltrated - All phases are etched equally
Silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal - For revealing the growth spirals
Silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal - Shows differences between Si (smooth etch) and C (rough etch) faces on opposing (001) surfaces
Silicon carbide (SiC-(beta-form) - Chemical polishing
Silicon carbide (SiC-(beta-form) - Chemical polishing
Silicon carbide - Attack polishing
Silicon carbide SiC - Etching
Silver - Ag-Mo alloys, Ag-W alloys, Ag-W carbides - General microstructure
Silver - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Sintered carbides - Chemical etching
Sintered carbides - Electrolytic polishing
Sintered carbides - General etching of sintered carbides
Sintered carbides - Particularly for sintered carbides which-apart from WC-also contain TiC, TaC and NbC
Sintered carbides - Sintered carbides containing Ni-phase
Sintered carbides - Sintered carbides with high content of Ti and Ta carbides
Sintered carbides - To reveal boundaries of the carbide grains against the cobalt phase
Stainless steel - Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.5Si-17/17.5Cr-12.5Ni-0.73Nb
Stainless steel - Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.5Si-17Cr-12.5Ni-0.5Ti
Stainless steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
Stainless steels - Color etchant - General microstructure
Stainless steels - Color etching - Colors carbides and gamma- prime phase
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - Electrolytic etching
Stainless steels - General etchant - General microstructure
Stainless steels - General etchant - Heavy attack on austenite, sigma phase and carbides
Stainless steels - Tint etching
Steatite (Mg3 Si4 O10 x (OH)2)) - Sample preparation
Steel all type - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Steel alloys containing carbides - Contrast etching
Steel castings - Particularly suitable for castings
Steel specimens - Carbide etching
Steel specimens - Carbide etching
Steel specimens - General etching of carbon steel, cast iron, and also of certain alloyed steels
Steel specimens - TEM sample preparation
Steel specimens - To reveal sigma phase
Steels (all types) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Steels specimen - General etching of carbon steel and cast irons, and of certain alloyed steels
Stellite-6 alloy - Electrolytic etching
Super picral - Carbon and alloy steels with medium carbon content - General structure
Superalloy MAR200 - Chemical etching
Superalloys - Etches gamma phase, carbides, and grain boundaries
Superalloys - Etches gamma phase, carbides, grain-contrast etchant
Ta oxides, nitrides and carbides - Chemical etching
Ta(C,N,O) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Ta-C alloys - Chemical etching
TaC - Chemical etching
TaC - Chemical etching
TaC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
TaC specimens - Chemical cleaning
TaC specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
TaC, (Fe,Si)C - Chemical etching - General microstructure
TaC, TiC, SiC - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Tantalum carbide (TaC) - Thermal etching
ThC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ThC carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ThC carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ThC carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ThC2 carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ThC2 carbide - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Thorium carbide (ThC) - Cathodic etching
Thorium carbide (ThC) - Chemical and electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Thorium carbide (ThC) - Chemical ecthing
Thorium carbide (ThC) - Electrolytic polishing
Thorium dicarbide (ThC2)-uranium dicarbide (UC2) - Electrolytic polishing
Ti alloys - Electrolytic etching
Ti and Ti alloys - Electrolytic polishing - Dislocation etching
Ti and alloys - Heat etching
Ti-Co alloy - Alloy with 5% Co - General microstructure
Ti-Cu alloy - For alloys with 5% Cu
Ti3SiC2 (titanium silicon carbide) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
TiC and TaC - Electrolytic etching
TiC coated steel - Structure of titanium carbide layer
TiC coated steel - This solution revealed a good grain boundry pattern in titanium carbide layer
TiC-C alloys - Electrolytic etching
Tint etch for steels - Chemical etching
Tint etch for steels - Chemical etching
Titanium carbide (TiC) - Chemical and electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Titanium carbide (TiC) - Electrolytic polishing and chemical etching
Titanium carbide (TiC) - Electrolytic thinning
Titanium carbide (TiC) - TiC(0.97)
Titanium carbide (TiC) single crystal - Electrolytic polishing
Tool steels - Color etching - Colors pearlite and hardened structures of unlloyed steels
Tool steels - Color etching - For carbon, alloy and Fe-Mn (5-18% Mn) steels
Tool steels - Color etching - For carbon, alloy and manganese steels
Type AISI 316 stainless steel - Fe-18Cr-8Ni-2.5Mo
U carbide - Chemical etching
U-2% Zr alloy - Sample preparation procedure
U-Al-Ni system - UAl2-NiAl section - General microstructure
U-Fe-C alloys - Electrolytic polishing
UC single crystal wafers - Chemical etching - General microstructure
UC, U(C,O) x U(C,N), UC-ZrC mixtures, UC-UC2, UC2-U2C3 mixtures,(U,Pu)C C-rich
UO2, carbide-coated graphite, pyrolitic graphite - Attack polishing
Udimet 500 alloy - Ni-15/20Cr-13/20Co-3/5Mo-2.5/3.25Al-0/4Fe
Udimet 700 - Electrolytic polishing, chemical etching
Uranium carbide (UC) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Uranium carbide (UC) - Electrolytic polishing
Uranium carbide (UC) - Electrolytic polishing and etching
Uranium carbide (UC) - Electrolytic thinning
Uranium carbide (UC) - Physical etching - General microstructure
Uranium carbide (UC)-zirconium carbide (ZrC) system - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Uranium carbide (UC)-zirconium carbide (ZrC) system - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Uranium carbide-Lanthanum alloys
Uranium carbide-neodymium alloys (C-Nd-U)
Uranium carbides (UC, U2C3, UC2) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Uranium dioxide-thoria system (10% UO4) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
VC - Chemical etching
Vanadium carbide (VC) - Dislocation etching
Vanadium carbide (VC0.84) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Vanadium oxide-lanthanum oxide system - V2O3-La2O3 system
Vapour deposited Silicon Carbide (SiC) - Thermal etching
Vilella's etchant - Iron and steels - Chemical etching
Vilella's etchant - Stainless steels - Chemical etching
Vilella's etchant - Stainless steels - General microstructure
W-Mo-Os alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
W-Ti-B alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC, Mo2C, TiC, or Ni in sintered carbides - Chemical etching
WC, TiC, TaC, and Co in sintered carbides - Chemical etching
WC-Co - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Co - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Co - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Co - Good etchant for WC crystals - Electrolytic etching
WC-Co - Suited for SEM examination - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
WC-Co and complex sintered carbides - Chemical etching
WC-Co or Ni matrix with Mo2C, TiC, WC2, TaC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Co sintered carbides - Chemical etching
WC-Co, WC-TiC-TaC-Co - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Co, reveals Co - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
WC-Mo2C-TiC-Ni - Chemical etching - General microstructure
WC-Mo2C-TiC-Ni cemented carbides - General microstructure
WC-Ti-Ta, NbC-Co - Physical etching - General microstructure
WC-TiC-NbC-Co - Chemical etching - General microstructure
White cast irons - Color etchant - General microstructure
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Incoloy 800, carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Incoloy 800, general structure; carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Incoloy 800, grain boundaries
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Incoloy 825, grain boundaries; carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Incoloy 825, grain boundaries; carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel 600 and 601 - General structure; carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel 600 and 601 - General structure; grain boundaries; carbide
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel 600 and 601, excellent for revealing carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel 600 and 601- Grain boundary contrast
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel X-750 (AISI 688) - Good for revealing grain boundaries and carbide particles
Wrought Fe-Ni-Cr heat resisting alloys - Inconel X-750 (AISI 688), grain boundaries; carbide
Wrought stainless steels - General structure
Wrought stainless steels - General structure
Wrought stainless steels - General structure
Wrought stainless steels - General structure, carbides
Wrought stainless steels - General structure, sigma phase
X41CrMoV5-1 steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
X41CrMoV5-1 steel - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Y-Al-C alloys - Chemical etching
Y-Cd system - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Y-Ge system - Chemical ecthing
Yb-Al alloys - Polishing
Yb-Ni system - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Zicronium carbide (ZrC) - Etch pits on (100) planes
Zirconium - Chemical etching
Zirconium - Chemical etching
Zirconium-thorium-oxygen system (Zr-ThO2, Zr-Th x ThO2) - Chemical polishing
Zirconium-yttrium-oxygen system (Zr-Y2O3) - Chemical polishing
Zr alloys - Chemical etching
Zr, Zr-Si, Zr-B, Zr-Nb, and Zr-Fe alloys - Chemical etching
Zr-Ce-O system - Zr-Ce2O3 x 2ZrO2
Zr-Mn alloy - Alloys with 0.5-2.0 at. % Mn
Zr-Th alloys - Chemical polishing
ZrC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
ZrC - Chemical etching - General microstructure
a-SiC-H thin films deposited on Si (100) substrates - Chemical etching - General microstructure

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