Sand inclusion in grey iron casting

Figure 1: Inclusions of large areas of sand and individual sand grains in a grey iron casting. Scale: 10 mm = 8 mm

Figure 2: Micrograph of an inclusion defect in a grey iron casting. The embedded sand grains are clearly recognizable. Scale: 10 mm = 0.08 mm

Inclusion name: Sand inclusion
Record No.: 1380
Inclusion formula: No data
Inclusion type (Macro/Micro/Nano): Macro
Inclusion type (Exogenous/Indigenous): Exogenous
Inclusion classification: No data
Inclusion composition in weight %: No data
Sample: Grey cast iron
Steel composition in weight %: No data
Note: Sand inclusion is one of the most frequent causes of casting rejection. It is often difficult to diagnose, as these defects generally occur at widely varying positions and are therefore very difficult to attribute to a local cause. Areas of sand are often torn away by the metal stream and then float to the surface of the casting because they cannot be wetted by the molten metal. Sand inclusions frequently appear in association with CO blowholes and slag particles. Sand inclusions can also be trapped under the casting surface in combination with metal oxides and slags, and only become visible during machining. If a loose section of sand is washed away from one part of the mould, metallic protuberances will occur here and have to be removed.
Reference: Not shown in this demonstration version.

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