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Exogenous Inclusions

(Fe, Cr)3O4 spinel layer on Feľ10Cr alloy
A big slag inclusion in AISI 1040 steel bar
A ductile iron crankshaft segment essentially free of exogenous inclusions and with numerous exogenous inclusions
A slag spot and sliver defects on a cold-rolled sheet
A slag spot defect on a cold-rolled sheet
A slag spot defect on a cold-rolled sheet
Al2O3 inclusion in SCM415 steel
Alumina clogs at the submerged entry nozzle during continuous casting of low-carbon Al-killed steel
Alumina clusters with exogenous inclusions
Alumina inclusion in surface of AISI 316 steel
Alumina inclusions in SEN clogged port
Aluminium oxide inclusions in 30CrNiMo8 steel
Aluminium oxide inclusions in 30CrNiMo8 steel
Aluminium oxide inclusions in 34CrNiMo6 steel
Anorthite and galaxite in glassy matrix of calcia-alumina-silica
Anorthite, spinel and grossularite (spessartite) in steel
BOF slag
Big slag inclusion in 42CrMo4 steel
CaO, Al2O3, MgO and CaS inclusions in ferritic stainless steel
Calcium aluminate and spinel in heavily rolled steel
Calcium aluminate entrapped in the slab after the end had come off the SEN
Calcium aluminate with spinel
Casting Powder
Casting powder, chromite inclusions in rotor steel
CeO2, CeAlO3, Ce2O2S particles in austenitic manganese steel
Circular spall in hardened steel roll
Clogging - ULC steel
Comparison between inclusions in molten steel obtained at 3 min and 18 min after the addition of aluminum
Cristobalite in glassy manganese oxide-alumina-silica
Defect from runner erosion
Defects on surface of steel strip rolled from ingot steel sliver, and (c) blisters, and pipe lamination
Dendritic inclusions formed from a spherical primary silica in Fe-10% Ni alloy deoxidized with silicon
Dolomite
Dolomite
EAF carbon steel slag
EPMA mapping images of the glazed refractories after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel
EPMA of an inclusion in the flange crack of a drawn and ironed can
Electro slag in the fusion line after welding
Elemental maps of the entrapped material
Enstatite in glassy silicate matrix
Enstatite in glassy silicate matrix
Entrapped particles during steel casting
Example of surface defect induced by the interaction between the fluxes and the steel surface
Example of tunnel or lap defect on rolled plate due to pickled-out silicate inclusions
Examples of exogenous inclusions in steel
Exogenous inclusion in a slab sample from a slag tracer study
Exogenous inclusions from a calcium-silicon-barium treated heat
Exogenous inclusions from ladle inner nozzle
Exogenous inclusions from lining refractory
Exogenous inclusions in a slab sample from a calcium treated heat
Exogenous inclusions in deep-drawing steel
Exogenous inclusions in steel
Fayalite and iron oxide in glassy matrix of iron silicate
Fayalite and iron oxide in iron oxide-alumina-silica
Forsterite and spinel in a glassy silicate matrix
Forsterite in an olivine brick
Forsterite, enstatite and chromite in olivine bricks
Fractured large furnace slag particle in cold-worked austenitic stainless steel powder
Grunerite (FeSiO3) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4)
Hematite on surface of inclusion from oxide scale
Inclusion clusters and exogenous inclusions from line refractory in LCAK steel
Inclusion clusters in Al-killed steel
Inclusion clusters in LCAK steel
Inclusion clusters on a bubble surface
Inclusion from the quartz lining of the casting mould
Inclusion sliver in the longitudinal section of a sheet product
Inclusions from mold flux and runner brick
Inclusions from mold flux and runner brick
Inclusions from the ferrochromium
Inclusions in 18G2A steel
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous aluminium silicate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous aluminium silicate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous aluminium silicate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous aluminium-calcium silicate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous aluminium-calcium silicate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous calcium aluminate
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous silica
Inclusions in a high speed steel powder-exogenous zirconium silicate
Inclusions in as-extruded stainless steel powder compact-exogenous aluminium oxide
Inclusions in high speed steel powder-HIPped
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-alkali-bearing silicates
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-alkali-calcium silicates
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-aluminium oxides
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-magnesium oxides
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-titanium oxide
Inclusions in sponge iron powder-titanium oxide with mixed oxide constituents
Inclusions in the railway rail I
Inclusions in the railway rail II
Inclusions in water atomized metal powder-exogenous oxide
Inclusions in water atomized metal powder-exogenous oxide
Inclusions in water atomized metal powder-exogenous oxide
Inclusions in water atomized metal powder-exogenous oxide
Inclusions in water atomized metal powder-exogenous oxide with precipitated sulfide
Inclusions outlining the former surface of bubbles captured in ingot steel
Inclusions un as extruded stainless steel powder compact-exogenous furnace slag
Inclusions, rich in calcium aluminate in teh fusion line between the steel and the welding electrode
Indigenous and exogenous inclusions in a slab sample from a magnesium treated heat
Indigenous and exogenous inclusions in a slab sample from an argon-stirred heat
Iron oxide and slag inclusions in the crack in 1.2312 steel
Iron oxide in 145Cr6 steel
Iron oxide in 36MnVS4 steel
Iron oxide in 40CrMnMoS8-6 steel
Iron oxide in 86CrMoV7 steel
Iron oxide in X19CrMoVNbN11-1 steel
Iron oxide in the crack of 34CrMo4 steel
Iron oxide in the crack of St52-3N steel
Iron oxide layer in 30CrMoV9 steel
Iron oxide scale in 30CrMoV9 steel
Iron oxide scale in AISI D2 steel
Iron sulfide-wustite eutectic in oxide scale
Ladle sand buildup block
Large alumina refractory pieces in carbon steel
Large mullite-sillimanite inclusion of exogenous origin
Large nonmetallic inclusions found in the forged ingot
Large slag line in 1.5919 steel
Line defect in rolled steel sheet
Line shell defects on stainless flat-rolled product from ingot
Low-quartz, cristobalite, and chromium galaxite
Macro inclusion in 21NiCrMo2 steel
Macro inclusion in stainless steel casting
Macro inclusion types detected in (Si-killed) steel
Macro inclusions in 70 t 12Cr2Mo1 steel ingot
Macro inclusions in stainless steel casting
Macro inlusions in carbon steel
Macro slag inclusion in 51CrV4 steel
Macro slag inclusion in AISI S7 steel
Macro slag inclusion in St52-3N steel
Macro slag inclusion in carbon steel
Microstructure of the refractory/steel interface in a bottom-pour runner sample from K1040-type steel
Mould powder in 10CrMo9-10 steel
Mould powder in AISI D2 steel
Mould powder inclusion in 1.4938 steel
Mould powder inclusion in 86CrMoV7 steel
Mould powder inclusion in AISI O1 steel
Mould slag in steel
Mould-steel interface in the continuous casting of steel
NMI in Ni-based alloy 825
NMI in ferroalloy FeTi70R
NMI on the barrel roll surface
Non-metallic inclusion in low alloyed cold working tool steel
Non-metallic inclusions in X20Cr13 steel
Olivine Sand
Origin of macro inclusion types in (Si-killed bearing) steel
Other complex oxides in steel
Oxide inclusions in PM forged steel
Oxide phase on the fracture surface of X20CrMoV11-1 steel
Oxide scale in X45NiCrMo4 steel
Periclase and magnesium ferrite in magnesite brick containing iron
Periclase in burnt magnesite
Periclase, calcia, calcium ferrite and silicate in burnt dolomite
Photo images of glazed refractories after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel
Quartz and cristobalite in glassy matrix of manganese oxide-alumina
Reaction zone between molten steel and chamotte quartz, mullite, corundum, and glassy manganese oxide-alumina-silica
Refractory macro inclusions in carbon steel
Runner/Trumpet Refractory
SEM images for the glazed refractories after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel
SEM images of the glazed refractory after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel (1 min reaction)
SEM images of the glazed refractory after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel (30 min reaction)
SEM images of the glazed refractory after chemical reaction with Al-deoxidized and Ca-treated molten steel (5 min reaction)
Sand grain inclusions in grey cast iron I
Sand grain inclusions in grey cast iron II
Sand inclusion in grey iron casting
Scale on steel - different iron oxides
Sharpened slag line in 1.8519 steel
SiO2 inclusions in X46Cr13 steel
Silver defects in stainless steel
Slag and iron oxide in 41CrAlNi7 steel
Slag and iron oxide in 41CrAlNi7 steel
Slag cluster in grey cast iron
Slag formation and blockage of the argon channel
Slag from different iron oxides from oxide scale
Slag in iron
Slag inclusion in 1.3343 steel
Slag inclusion in 1.7225 steel
Slag inclusion in 10CrMo9-10 steel
Slag inclusion in 142W13 steel
Slag inclusion in 20Mn6 steel
Slag inclusion in 30CrNiMo8 steel
Slag inclusion in 40CrMnMo7 steel
Slag inclusion in 40CrMnMoS8-6 steel
Slag inclusion in 40CrMnMoS8-6 steel
Slag inclusion in 50CrMoV13-1 steel
Slag inclusion in 86CrMoV7 steel
Slag inclusion in 90MnCrV8 steel
Slag inclusion in 9SMn28 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI A2 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI D2 Steel
Slag inclusion in AISI D2 Steel
Slag inclusion in AISI D2 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI D2 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI D3 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI H13 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI O2 steel
Slag inclusion in AISI T42 steel
Slag inclusion in Ck45 steel
Slag inclusion in M2 steel
Slag inclusion in X100CrMoV5 steel
Slag inclusion in X12CrS13 steel
Slag inclusion in X19NiCrMo4 steel
Slag inclusion in X20Cr13 steel
Slag inclusion in X20Cr13 steel
Slag inclusion in X20Cr13 steel
Slag inclusion in X38CrMoV5-1 steel
Slag inclusion in X40CrMoV51 steel
Slag inclusion in X5CrNiCuNb16-4 steel
Slag inclusion in alloyed carbon steel
Slag inclusion in high speed steel 1.53C-4.90Cr-6.50V-4.90Co
Slag inclusion in steel X46Cr13 steel
Slag inclusions in 40CrMnMoS8-6 steel
Slag inclusions in GX2CrNiMo18-14-3 cast steel
Slag inclusions in GX3CrNiMoN17-13-5 cast steel
Slag inclusions in X12Cr13 steel
Slag inclusions in X19NiCrMo4 steel
Slag inclusions in ladle steel extracted by Slime method
Slag inclusions in wrought iron
Slag spots on a cold-rolled sheet
Slag under the surface in 1.4105 steel
Slag under the surface in 1.4301 steel
Slag under the surface in 1.7707 steel
Slags and titanium carbides in 1.4872 steel
Small hercynite inclusions in a weld
Spinel in calcium aluminate
Spinel in glassy silicate matrix
Stringers of aluminate inclusions in manganese steel
Strong slag line in 1.3520 steel
Strong slag line in 1.4718 steel
Sulfide and alumina inclusions in AISI A2 steel
Sulfide inclusions in 40CrMnMoS8-6 steel
Sulfides and slag in wrought iron
Synthetic slag
Synthetic slag - Hercynite
Tephroite in glassy matrix of manganese oxide-alumina-silica
Traces of slag on the fracture surface in AISI D2 steel
Tridymite, quartz, and chromium-galaxite
Two complex exogenous inclusions in steel
Type-9 inclusion in ORVAR 2M steel
Typical exogenous inclusions in steel
Typical pencil blister defect on the surface of a sheet
Typical slag inclusions in steel ingot
Typical spherical and irregular particles found in MCP (Metal-Cap-Protected) samples
Variation in charging with image type - Exogenous inclusion
Wustite, magnetite and iron silicates
Wustite, magnetite, and manganese silicate
Y2Si2O7, MnS, SiO2 inclusions in 410L stainless steel

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