Corrosion Defects

A longitudinal groove on the internal surface along the top of the tub - Corrosion defects
A massive longitudinal perforation - Corrosion defects
Acid attack along weld on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion at weld - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion at welds - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion on the external surface of a fire tube - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion on the internal surface of a wall tube - Corrosion defects
Activated charcoal filter-Wall section-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Aircraft component - Corrosion defects
Ammonia cooling installation for air cooling-Condenser cooling elements-Attack by corrosive waters - Corrosion defects
Ammonium nitrate reactor-Flange-Stress corrosion (trztnsgranular) - Corrosion defects
Anthracite and resin beads beneath a stratified iron oxide layer - Corrosion defects
Appearance of attack by citric acid - Corrosion defects
Appearance of stress-corrosion crack on the external surface - Corrosion defects
Appearance of the external surface of a screen tube after exposure to moisture and corrosive deposits during idle periods - Corrosion defects
Atmospheric distillation-Piping-Sulfidation - Corrosion defects
Autoclave heating system (with heating oil)-External part of heating coil-Fatigue corrosion - Corrosion defects
Benzene storage tank-Bottom plate-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Blast furnace gas scrubber-Plate-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (12 bar, shell type boiler)-Smoke tube (before and after cleaning)-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (12 bar, shell type boiler)-Smoke tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (41 bar, corner tube boiler)-Water tube from convection section-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (71 bar, vertical water tube boiler)-Water tube-Creep caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (91 bar, water tube boiler)-Furnace tube-Creep caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (gas turbine waste heat boiler, 41 bar)-Pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (shell type boiler, 19 bar)-Smoke tubes-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (shell type boiler, 7-8 bar, gas-fired)-Smoke tube extremity of second pass-Cracking caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (water tube boiler, 51 bar, fluidized bed fired)-Furnace wall tube-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (water tube boiler; 85 bar, 515C)-Downcomer tube from drum-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler coal-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Deaerator-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Feed line from deaerator to boiler-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Section of steam dome of two-stage deaerator-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedsystem-First impeller and diffuser ring of boiler feedwater pump (65 mi/h, 51 bar back pressue)-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater deaerator-Deaerator cascade jacket-Stress corrosion (transgranular) underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater system-Boiler feed pump impeller-Graphitization - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater tank equipped with steam heating-Steam coil-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler heat recovery system (watcr tube boiler, 46 bar)-Flue gas heat exchanger-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Economizer pipe (before and after laboratory cleaning)-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Economizer tube-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Superheating tube-Sulphidation - Corrosion defects
Brewery-Spent grain transport pipe-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Brittle fracture face resulting from corrosion fatigue - Corrosion defects
Bulged and ruptured superheater U-bend - Corrosion defects
Calcium carbonate and Analcite deposits - Corrosion defects
Carbon dioxide scrubbing tower-Pump shaft-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Carbon dioxide scrubbing tower-Wall-Cold hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Carburizing - Corrosion defects
Cattle shed-Rear support of partition wall between the cows-Ammonia corrosion - Corrosion defects
Caustic corrosion and overheating - Corrosion defects
Caustic gouging along a longitudinal waterline - Corrosion defects
Caustic soda transport system-Pipe section-Stress corrosion (caustic embrittlement) - Corrosion defects
Caustic soda transport system-Pipe-Alkalinity corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Central heating system-Boiler smoke tube-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Central heating system-Circulating pump rotor-Consequence of oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Chain graphitization - Corrosion defects
Chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Chelant corrosion on feedwater pump - Corrosion defects
Chelant corrosion on internal surface of inlet end - Corrosion defects
Chemical-physical waste water purification plant-Mixing flange in waste water pipeline-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Cleaning circuit-Conductivity electrodes placed in the circuit-'Stray current' corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cleaning circuit-Pipe section-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Coal-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cold tapwater system-Pipe section-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cold tapwater system-Pipe section-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Condenser cooler in nitric acid plant-Cooler jacket-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Contaminated sulphuric acid transport pipeline-Plate in a butterfly valve-Cracking corrosion on both sides - Corrosion defects
Continuous Catalytic Reforming-Furnace tubes-Metal dusting - Corrosion defects
Convergence of groove - Corrosion defects
Cooling element of air-cooled sulphuric acid heat exchanger-Sulphuric acid plant-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling system (ammonia)-Insulated steel pipe-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Cooling tower with heat exchanger-Cooler pipe from heat exchanger - Hot hydrogen attack (decarburization) - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system (open, circulating, with cooling tower)-Pipe section-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Cooling water pump check valve-Graphitization - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Cooling water pump impeller-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Left-hand cooling water pump filter bolt; right-hand new bolt-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Pipe section with branch-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Corroded plate surface - Corrosion defects
Corrosion and perforations of finned economizer tube - Corrosion defects
Corrosion due to hydrolysis - Corrosion defects
Corrosion fatigue - Broken drive shaft - Corrosion defects
Corrosion fatigue - Corrosion defects
Corrosion pit acting as stress concentrator - Corrosion defects
Corrosion resulting from inadequate water washing of external surfaces - Corrosion defects
Corrosion-fatigue cracking - Corrosion defects
Creep rupture (stress rupture) - Corrosion defects
Cross section of bulged target-wall tube - Corrosion defects
Cross section of tube showing weld metal - Welding defects - Corrosion defects
Crude oil distillation unit-Process pipe-Age embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Crude oil storage tank-Bottom plate weld-Knife line attack (selective leaching) - Corrosion defects
Curved defect originating on the internal surface of a seamless tube - Corrosion defects
Dairy factory, whey manufacturing unit-Whey transport pipeline-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Dealloying - Corrosion defects
Deep caustic gouging beneath insulating internal deposits - Corrosion defects
Deep grooves cut into the hot side of a waterwall tube - Corrosion defects
Deposit layer on the internal surface of the hot side of a crossover tube - Corrosion defects
Desulphurization plant-6" pipe to the furnace-Hot hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Desulphurization unit-Reactor test block-Sulphur corrosion - Corrosion defects
Dew-point corrosion during idle periods - Corrosion defects
Distillation column-Tray clamp-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Distillation tower-Belleville washers (top specimen unused, bottom specimen corroded)-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
District heating system-Lower part of radiator-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Elemental copper on wall tube from a high-pressure utility boiler - Corrosion defects
Elliptical metal-loss pattern and intact island of tube metal at perforated superheater U-bend - Corrosion defects
Elliptical water rings surrounding oxygen pit in a U-bend - Corrosion defects
Extensive longitudinal crack in a stainless steel soot-blower line - Corrosion defects
External surface of economizer tube following dew-point corrosion - Corrosion defects
Failure along a massive manufacturing defect in the tube wall - Corrosion defects
Feedwater supply could not meet boiler demand - Corrosion defects
Fine, striated grooves on front face of final-stage turbine blade caused by water-droplet impingement - Corrosion defects
Fire-side corrosion - Corrosion defects
First stage reactor-Hydrocraking - Corrosion defects
Fluid catalytic cracking-Mounting hardware for instrumentation-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Fluid catalytic cracking-Regenerator-Carbonate stress corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Fly-ash erosion - Corrosion defects
Freon cooling system-Compressor suction pipe-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas cooler-Pipe-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Gas piping system-Wall section-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas supply system-Underground coupling-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas supply system-Underground pipe (bitumen-coated)-Stray current corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas supply system-Underground pipe (wrapped in tape)-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gate on rollers-Tubular railings-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Glue plant-Autoclave charge pipe-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gouging along internal surface opposite fins - Corrosion defects
Graphitic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Grating floors of an outdoor chemical plant- Part of a floor section-Atmospheric corrosion - Corrosion defects
Grooving and perforation of a slanted tube resulting from corrosive water dripping from above - Corrosion defects
Grooving on pendant U-bend superheater leg caused by steam leaking through a corrosion-fatigue crack at the U-bend - Corrosion defects
H2S stripping tower-Hydrodesulfurisation - Corrosion defects
HF alkylation-Piping-HF stress corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Heat exchanger-Attacked tube from bundle, with a new tube below it for comparison-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Heating system (with heating oil)-Valve bolts-Liquid metal embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Heavily pitted condensate line - Corrosion defects
High pressure boiler, fired with heavy oil-Furnace evaporator tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
High pressure boiler-Economizer pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
High pressure boiler-Evaporator tube-Intergranular hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
High temperature oxidation failure of aluminized steel heater tubes - Corrosion defects
High-pressure boiler-Spindle of high-pressure reducing valve for the sampling of boiler water-Erosion - Corrosion defects
High-vacuum distillation unit-Furnace tube-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
High-vacuum distillation unit-Process pipe-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Electrically heated coil-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Galvanic corrosion by cementation - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe sections-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Tube (sawn into pieces)-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Underground pipe section-Stray current corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Wall of hot water storage tank-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot water heating system-Three-way valve positioned in the return pipe of steam generator at the bypass junction-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Hot water system, 160 C-Heating tube from make-up water vessel-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hydrochloric acid transport pipe-Metal strengthener around plastic bellows-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hydrodesulfurizer unit-Gas oil heater-Creep and cracks - Corrosion defects
Hydrofluoric alkylation plant-Wall-Cold hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Idle-time corrosion occurring beneath refractory - Corrosion defects
Intergranular SCC in 4340 alloy steel - Corrosion defects
Internal surface of condensate line - Corrosion defects
Internal surface of downcomer tube showing oxygen-assisted chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Internal surface of tube showing oval-shaped replacement window welded into place - Welding defects - Corrosion defects
Iron oxide - Corrosion defects
Jaggedness associated with severe acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Ketchup plant-Part of cast pump casing-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Ketchup plant-Product pipelines-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Lactic acid storage tank-Base (with drain)-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Large wall section blown out of a hydrogen-damaged tube from a 2075-psi (14.3-MPa) boiler - Corrosion defects
Large, fish-mouth rupture of rifled nose-arch tube - Corrosion defects
Large, wide-open rupture in a superheater tube of a waste-heat boiler - Corrosion defects
Localized metal loss in a bend of a condensate return header - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal and transverse fissures near rolled end - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal crack along the side of a 90 bend in an economizer tube - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fissure adjacent to stud - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fissure running from the edge of a large, wide-open rupture. - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fissures along hot side - Corrosion defects
Longitudinally split blowdown line with severe localized metal loss caused by cavitation - Corrosion defects
Low-pH gouging - Corrosion defects
Magnetite blisters - Corrosion defects
Massive fracture along weld bead resulting from weld-related graphitization - Welding defects - Corrosion defects
Massive rupture of tube along a weld-seam defect - Corrosion defects
Massive thick-walled fracture caused by creep - Corrosion defects
Mercaptan transport system-Pipe section-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting I - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting II - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting III - Corrosion defects
Metal loss from strong acid - Corrosion defects
Metal loss from the external surface near a longitudinally oriented fin - Corrosion defects
Milk products storage and distribution system-Conveyor plate-Attack by alkaline water - Corrosion defects
Multiple, abrupt bulges on the hot face of a waterwall tube of a recovery boiler - Corrosion defects
Nitric acid condenser-Condenser tubes-Intergranular corrosion internally, crevice corrosion externally - Corrosion defects
Nitric acid plant-Vessel wall section (on both sides)-Weld decay (intergranular corrosion near the weld) - Corrosion defects
Oil cooler-Heat exchanger plates-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Oil distillation plant-Column wall-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Oil-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Once-through cooling system-Flange from conveyor line-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Once-through cooling water system-Heat exchanger-Galvanic corrosion (with general corrosion and crevice corrosion) - Corrosion defects
Oxygen pits in section of superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Oxygen pits on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Oxygen pitting on the external surface of fire tube - Corrosion defects
PVC plant-Process pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Paper mill-Pulp transport pipeline-Galvanic corrosion. (Pitting due to contamination with carbon steel particles) - Corrosion defects
Part of a thick-walled rupture in a superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Patch of hard iron oxides on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Perforation in a region of severe metal loss - Corrosion defects
Perforation resulting from corrosion of internal surface - Corrosion defects
Pitting - Corrosion defects
Platformer-Ball valve-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Platformer-Ballast plate-Hot hydrogen attack (decarburization) - Corrosion defects
Platformer-T-piece (3/4)-Fatigue - Corrosion defects
Pockmarked contour of economizer tube exposed to condensed sulfuric acid - Corrosion defects
Power station condenser-Step inside water header-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Power station cooling system-Sieve from steam condenser cooling water system-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Preboiler and afterboiler erosion - Corrosion defects
Product storage tank-Bottom plate-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Product transport system-Pipe-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Production plant-Welded bend in steam coil-Weld decay (intergranular corrosion near the weld) - Corrosion defects
Profile of tube wall showing unfused fissure remaining after weld repair - Welding defects - Corrosion defects
Pump cavitation - Corrosion defects
Pump-roller bearing-False brinelling - Corrosion defects
Reactor-nut with bolt-Hydrogen embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Refuse incinerator-ERW (electric resistance welded) furnace tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Region of caustic gouging along internal surface - Corrosion defects
Rupture associated with low-pH gouging - Corrosion defects
Rupture in an economizer tube caused by severe localized external-surface erosion - Corrosion defects
Rupture resulting from hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Ruptured division-wall tube from fluidized-bed boiler - Corrosion defects
Rust on a stainless steel pipe spool piece - Corrosion defects
Rust on a stainless steel plate - Corrosion defects
Sea water corrosion - Corrosion defects
Seam defect (top tube) - Corrosion defects
Seam defect in steam line - Corrosion defects
Sensitization of austenitic stainless steel - Corrosion defects
Several prominent bulges - Corrosion defects
Severe fire-side metal loss on waterwall tubes - Corrosion defects
Severe graphitic corrosion of a gray cast iron feedwater-pump impeller - Corrosion defects
Severe thermal oxidation and spalling of magnetite on external surface - Corrosion defects
Sewage treatment plant-Aeration tank distributor pieces-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Sewage treatment plant-Worm of worm gear pump-Chloride attack and erosion - Corrosion defects
Short-term overheating - Corrosion defects
Soda solution transport system-Pipe bend-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sodium hydroxide-rich deposit - Corrosion defects
Soot-Blower erosion - Corrosion defects
Spalling and exfoliation of magnetite on internal surfaces - Corrosion defects
Spiral grooves cut into internal surface of flue-gas cooler by erosive gas flow - Corrosion defects
Sprinkler (extinguisher) system (wet)-Pipe section-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Stainless steel (AISI 304)-Textile steamer-Guide bar in textile conveyor system - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system (15 bar)-Condensate pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system (4 bar)-Header from air heater-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system (of 13 bar steam supply)-Horizontal condensate pipe-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Air heater tubes-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Condensate pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Condensate pump impeller-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Element from air heater and steam trap-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Float ball from heat exchanger steam trap-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Horizontal condensate pipe and deposits in a condensate pipe-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Pipe of air heater used as steam cooler-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Pipe-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Uninsulated pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Uninsulated underground pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Upper part of horizontal condensate pipe- Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Valve from condensate pipe-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Vertical element from air heater (before and after sawing through)-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam cutting from adjacent tube failures - Corrosion defects
Steam cutting of utility convection tubes - Corrosion defects
Steam pipe-Flange-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam system (7 bar)-Steam control valve-Consequence of excessive pick-up of magnetite - Corrosion defects
Steam system (low pressure)-Steam pipe section-Intergranular stress corrosion (caustic embrittlement) - Corrosion defects
Steam system-Bend in steam pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam system-Valve bolts-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steaming - Corrosion defects
Stress-corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Stripper steam system-Distributor pipe-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphidation - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Flange in pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Main distribution pipe-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Pipe section-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Valve-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
The massive rupture of the wall tube - Corrosion defects
The reddish color of the iron oxides and the presence of tubercles capping iron oxide-filled pits - Corrosion defects
The thick-walled rupture - Corrosion defects
Thermal oxidation (metal burning) - Corrosion defects
Thermal stresses aid oxide spalling - Corrosion defects
Thermal-fatigue cracks on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Thick, irregular mound of hard iron oxides covering perforation - Corrosion defects
Thick-walled burst resulting from hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Thick-walled rupture in a reheater tube. Note fissures on external surface aligned with the rupture - Corrosion defects
Transverse crack resulting from caustic stress corrosion in a bent stainless steel superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Transverse cracks and associated oxygen pits - Corrosion defects
Transverse fissures at and near stud bases - Corrosion defects
Tube rupture after severe metal loss by chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Tube sections virtually plugged with deposits - Corrosion defects
Ureum stripper-Gas pipe-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Utility superheater tube cut by steam leaking from an adjacent tube that failed at a manufacturing defect - Corrosion defects
Vacuum evaporation system for milk powder manufacture-Pump impeller-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Vertical waste heat boiler of a catalytic cracker-Corrosion defect-Attack due to high alkalinity - Corrosion defects
Waste water pipe-Ball valve ball-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Water supply in a cattle shed-Drinking troughs-White rust - Corrosion defects
Water treatment system (ion exchanger)-Drainage pipe-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Welding wire annealing system-Wall of annealing furnace-Carburization - Corrosion defects

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