Surface Defects

13/3-in.-diam gage - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
4-stages of bearing failure - Bearing defects
4.7 t ingot made of 18Kh2N4VA steel - Ingot defects
700 F embrittlement in mod. 329 duplex stainless steel after 1000 h - Fractography
A clean break indicates a sudden shockload failure - Gear defects - Other defects
A comparison of two stainless mold steels with similar chemical compositions - Polishing defects
A crack in the shroud of a low pressure steam turbine - Other defects
A die break down - Tool steel defects
A failed hydraulic cylinder - Welding defects
A large silicate inclusion that caused the defect - Tool steel defects
A longitudinal groove on the internal surface along the top of the tub - Corrosion defects
A massive longitudinal perforation - Corrosion defects
A nitrided punch - Tool steel defects
A quench crack promoted by the presence of a deep, sharp stamp mark in a die made of AISI S7 tool steel - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
A rough substrate surface - Galvanizing - Coating defects
A summary of polishing sequences - Polishing defects
A surface crack - Rolling defects
A typical circumferential crack formed during the open-die forging - Ingot defects
AISI 06 graphitic tool steel punch machined from centerless-ground bar stock that cracked after limited service -Fractography
AISI 4150 alloy steel chuck jaw that broke because of the presence of a brittle white-etching nitride surface layer - Fractography
AISI D2 powder metallurgy die component that melted and deformed because of flame impingement during heat treatment - Fractography
AISI H13 mandrel used to pierce and extrude brass that failed after 298 pushes, about 30% of its expected life - Fractography
AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked just after heat treatment - Heat treatmnet defects - Fractography
AISI Ol tool steel ring forging that cracked during quenching - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
AISI P20 mold made from prehardened stock that was carburized and rehardened - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
AISI S7 punch that had a low surface hardness after heat treatment - Fractography
AISI W2 carbon tool steel (1.05% C) component that cracked during quenching - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
AISI Wl tool steel concrete roughers that failed after short service - Fractography
ASTM A 490 high-strength bolts - Fractography
Abrasion - Bearing defects
Abrasion - Coating defects
Abrasion - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Abrasion - Pipeline defects
Abrasion resistance too low - Powder coating - Coating defects
Abrasive wear - Bearing defects
Abrasive wear - Bearing defects
Abrasive wear - Bearing defects
Abrasive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Abrasive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Abusive grinding - Machining defects
Abusive grinding - Tool steel defects
Abusive grinding practice - Machining defects
Accelerated wear - Bearing defects
Accident (curb hit) - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Accident (curb rash) - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Accident - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Acid attack along weld on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Acid corrosion at weld - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion at welds - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion on the external surface of a fire tube - Corrosion defects
Acid corrosion on the internal surface of a wall tube - Corrosion defects
Acid rain - Paint defects - Coating defects
Acid salts corrosion - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Acidic corrosion - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Acorn milling cutters - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Activated charcoal filter-Wall section-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Additional earthing for hollows - Powder coating - Coating defects
Adherent packing material - Casting defects
Adhering ash and flux residues - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Adhesion failure - Coating defects
Adhesion failure - Coating defects
Adhesion problems - Clearcoat - Paint defects - Coating defects
Adhesion problems - Polyester - Paint defects - Coating defects
Adhesion problems with plastics - Paint defects - Coating defects
Adhesion type wear of gear teeth - Gear defects - Other defects
Adhesive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Air wiping - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Aircraft component - Corrosion defects
Aligned porosity with crack - Welding defects
Alkali corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Alligatoring (crocodiling) - Coating defects
Alligatoring - Coating defects
Alligatoring in a rolled slab - Rolling defects
Alteration or modification - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Aluminium corrosion - Coating defects
Aluminothermic welding (Thermite) - Rail defects
Aluminum TSMC, chamfered edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Aluminum TSMC, flat edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Aluminum TSMC, rounded edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Ammonia cooling installation for air cooling-Condenser cooling elements-Attack by corrosive waters - Corrosion defects
Ammonium nitrate reactor-Flange-Stress corrosion (trztnsgranular) - Corrosion defects
An example of shelled rail - Rail defects
Angle error - Pipeline defects
Animal fouling - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Anneal color - Heat treatment defects
Anneal-stained edges (temper colours) - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Anneal-stained edges/temper colours - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Anodising burn I - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Anodising burn II - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Anthracite and resin beads beneath a stratified iron oxide layer - Corrosion defects
Appearance of 120 ton-class 9CrMoCoB steel of ESR ingot - ESR ingot defects
Appearance of attack by citric acid - Corrosion defects
Appearance of stress-corrosion crack on the external surface - Corrosion defects
Appearance of the external surface of a screen tube after exposure to moisture and corrosive deposits during idle periods - Corrosion defects
Arc strikes - Welding defects
Arc damage - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Arc strike - Welding defects
Atmospheric corrosion I - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Atmospheric corrosion II - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Atmospheric distillation-Piping-Sulfidation - Corrosion defects
Autoclave heating system (with heating oil)-External part of heating coil-Fatigue corrosion - Corrosion defects
Axial crack I - Bearing defects
Axial crack II - Bearing defects
Axial cracks - Bearing defects
Axial cracks occur on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Axial cracks occur on rolling surface - Bearing defects
Axial scratches at roller pitch intervals on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Axial scratches on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Axial scratches on rolling surface - Bearing defects
Axial smearing/scoring – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
BCL - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Bacon edge at the same film thickness on materials with 0,7 resp. 3 mm - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bad annealing - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Bare spots - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Bare spots - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Barnacle - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Bars showing a curvature defect - Slab defects
Bath roller marks - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Baumann print of the slab cross-section - Slab defects
Beach marks - Gear defects - Other defects
Bead of sweat on a work piece - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bearing damage - Bearing defects
Bearing damage classification - Bearing defects
Bearing defects
Bearing failure - Bearing defects
Bearing failure - Bearing defects
Bearing life vs. bearing operating setting - Bearing defects
Bearing-race axial cracks - Gear defects - Other defects
Belt pattern of electrical corrosion accompanied by pits on the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Bending and forming defects - Other defects
Bending fatigue - Gear defects - Other defects
Bending fatigue - Gear defects - Other defects
Benzene storage tank-Bottom plate-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Bitter pits caused by metal sliver in the underground - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bittiness - Coating defects
Black areas - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Black passivation defect - Zinc plating - Coating defects
Black patch - Cold rolling defects
Black spots - Casting defects
Blacking drops - Casting defects
Blacking or refractory coating inclusions - Casting defects
Blacking scab - Casting defects
Blacking scab, wash scab - Casting defects
Blast furnace gas scrubber-Plate-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Blasting damage - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Bleaching - Coating defects
Bleeding - Coating defects
Bleeding - Coating defects
Blister - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Blister - Rolling defects
Blistering - Coating defects
Blistering - Coating defects
Blistering caused by an inappropriate pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Blistering caused by cross-linkage - Powder coating - Coating defects
Blisters - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Blisters - Hot rolling defects
Blisters and pinholes - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Blisters in a carbon steel plate formed by hydrogen - Other defects
Blisters in the zinc coating - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Blood supply of felt pen or stamping ink - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bloom (blush) - Coating defects
Bloom - Coating defects
Blooming-effect - Powder coating - Coating defects
Blooming-effect - Powder coating - Coating defects
Blow holes - Rolling defects
Blow holes I - Ingot defects
Blow holes II - Ingot defects
Blow holes III - Ingot defects
Blow holes and open blow - Casting defects
Blow-off structure - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Blowhole - Casting defects
Blowhole - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Blowhole segregation at the ingot centre or below the ingot surface - ESR ingot defects
Blowhole/gas cavities/cavities (blowholes) due to boiling - Casting defects
Blowhole/gas cavities/cavities (blowholes) due to boiling - Casting defects
Blowholes - Casting defects
Blowholes - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Blowholes - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Blowholes - Slab defects
Blowholes - Slab defects
Blowholes - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Blowholes - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Blowholes at angles - Mould - Casting defects
Blowholes, adjacent to inserts, chills, chaplets, etc. - Casting defects
Blowholes, pinholes - Casting defects
Blowholes/pinholes - Casting defects
Bluish or purplish discoloration on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Bluish or purplish discoloration on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Body line slivers - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Body sliver/seams - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Boil up of the coating caused by a too high film thickness - Powder coating - Coating defects
Boiler (12 bar, shell type boiler)-Smoke tube (before and after cleaning)-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (12 bar, shell type boiler)-Smoke tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (41 bar, corner tube boiler)-Water tube from convection section-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (71 bar, vertical water tube boiler)-Water tube-Creep caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (91 bar, water tube boiler)-Furnace tube-Creep caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (gas turbine waste heat boiler, 41 bar)-Pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (shell type boiler, 19 bar)-Smoke tubes-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler (shell type boiler, 7-8 bar, gas-fired)-Smoke tube extremity of second pass-Cracking caused by superheating - Corrosion defects
Boiler (water tube boiler, 51 bar, fluidized bed fired)-Furnace wall tube-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler (water tube boiler; 85 bar, 515°C)-Downcomer tube from drum-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler coal-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Deaerator-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Feed line from deaerator to boiler-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler feed system-Section of steam dome of two-stage deaerator-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedsystem-First impeller and diffuser ring of boiler feedwater pump (65 mi/h, 51 bar back pressue)-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater deaerator-Deaerator cascade jacket-Stress corrosion (transgranular) underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater system-Boiler feed pump impeller-Graphitization - Corrosion defects
Boiler feedwater tank equipped with steam heating-Steam coil-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler heat recovery system (watcr tube boiler, 46 bar)-Flue gas heat exchanger-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Economizer pipe (before and after laboratory cleaning)-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Economizer tube-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Boiler-Superheating tube-Sulphidation - Corrosion defects
Bolt hole crack - Rail defects
Bolt hole crack - Rail defects
Bolt hole crack - Rail defects
Bootleg - Ingot defects
Bore crack - Casting defects
Boring cutters - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Boring tool - Tool steels - Fractography
Brake dust buildup - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Breakage (cold) - Casting defects
Breaking the casting - Slab defects
Breaks at the bending - 1.7102 steel - Cold drawing defects
Brewery-spent grain transport pipe-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Brick inclusions - Ingot defects
Bridging - Coating defects
Bridging - Coating defects
Bright edge (edge overgrowth) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Brinell and impact damage - Bearing defects
Brinelling - Bearing defects
Brinelling indentation – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Brittle fracture - Charpy V notch specimen - Fractography
Brittle fracture face resulting from corrosion fatigue - Corrosion defects
Brittle fracture in tension - Fractography
Brittle fracture of Fe –2.2% Si slab - Fractography
Broken A2 punch - Not tempered - Heat treatment defects
Broken base - Rail defects
Broken base - Rail defects
Broken casting (at gate, riser, or vent) - Casting defects
Broken chuck - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Broken corners - Hot rolling defects
Broken corners - Slab defects
Broken helical spring - 1.7176 steel - Cold drawing defects
Broken mould - Mould - Casting defects
Broken nitrided case - 1.7131 steel - Cold drawing defects
Broken or crushed core - Casting defects
Broken out gate - Casting defects
Broken-open lap - Forging defects
Brown staining - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Bruised ingot surface - Ingot defects
Bruising - Bearing defects
Brush chatter marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Brush marks - Coating defects
Bubbles caused by corrosion after pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bubbles caused by corrosion after pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bubbles caused by outgassing at the die-cast aluminium - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bubbles caused by tassels in the galvagnized plate - Powder coating - Coating defects
Bubbles or bubbling - Coating defects
Bubbles or bubbling - Coating defects
Buckle - Casting defects
Bulged and ruptured superheater U-bend - Corrosion defects
Bulging - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Burn in - Casting defects
Burn mark - Polishing defects
Burn marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Burn on - Casting defects
Burned on sand - Casting defects
Burned rail - Rail defects
Burned rail - Rail defects
Burned weld - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Burns from electric current - Bearing defects
Burns from electric current I - Bearing defects
Burns from electric current II - Bearing defects
Burns from electric current III - Bearing defects
Burnt - Hot rolling defects
Burnt castings - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Burnt edges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Burnt-on sand - Mould - Casting defects
Burrs on curl - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Burst at the bulging - 1.7709 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst of screw head at the compression - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst of screw head at the compression - 1.7076 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst of screw head at the compression - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst open upsetting sample - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst open upsetting sample - 1.4303 steel - Cold drawing defects
Burst open upsetting sample - 1.4303 steel - Cold drawing defects
Butterfly areas and early sub-surface cracks at inclusions - Bearing defects
Butterfly – Micro hardness - Bearing defects
Butterfly – Morphology & Orientation - Bearing defects
CO2 beads of sweat in the filter residue - Powder coating - Coating defects
CS macro segregation - Ingot defects
Cage damage - Bearing defects
Cage damage - Bearing defects
Cage is damaged by melting, balls become discolored and melted - Bearing defects
Caked residue of lubricant - Bearing defects
Calcium carbonate and Analcite deposits - Corrosion defects
Cam - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Cam fracture - Bearing defects
Camber - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Camber/swells - Casting defects
Cap shift - Bearing defects
Carbon deposit - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Carbon dioxide scrubbing tower-Pump shaft-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Carbon dioxide scrubbing tower-Wall-Cold hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Carbon tool steel dies - Tool steels - Fractography
Case crushing - Gear defects - Other defects
Case crushing - Gear defects - Other defects
Casting chilling defect - Casting defects
Casting defect and crack in hot rolled round billet - Rolling defects
Casting distortion - Casting defects
Casting imperfections visible - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Casting powder inclusions - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Castings with sand inclusions - Casting defects
Caterpillars - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Cathodic disbonding - Coating defects
Cattle shed-rear support of partition wall between the cows-Ammonia corrosion - Corrosion defects
Caustic corrosion and overheating - Corrosion defects
Caustic gouging along a longitudinal waterline - Corrosion defects
Caustic soda transport system-Pipe section-Stress corrosion (caustic embrittlement) - Corrosion defects
Caustic soda transport system-Pipe-Alkalinity corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Cavitation damage I - Fractography
Cavitation damage II - Fractography
Cavities - Casting defects
Center waves - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Centerline or axial shrinkage - Casting defects
Centerline segregation - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Centerline segregation - Rolling defects
Centerline segregation - Slab defects
Centerline segregation - Slab defects
Centerline segregation – Assessment method - Slab defects
Central heating system-Boiler smoke tube-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Central heating system-Circulating pump rotor-Consequence of oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Centreline segregation in the slabs - Slab defects
Centrifugal impeller - Fractography
Chain and wire marks - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Chain graphitization - Corrosion defects
Chalking - Coating defects
Chalking - Coating defects
Chalking caused by faulty powder coating selection - Powder coating - Coating defects
Chalky side seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Chaplet or insert cold shut, unfused chaplet - Casting defects
Characteristic layers of a subsurface - Machining defects
Charpy V-notch series to evaluate the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature - Fractography
Chatter marks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Check earthing - Powder coating - Coating defects
Checking - Coating defects
Checking - Coating defects
Cheesiness - Coating defects
Chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Chelant corrosion on feedwater pump - Corrosion defects
Chelant corrosion on internal surface of inlet end - Corrosion defects
Chemical-physical waste water purification plant-Mixing flange in waste water pipeline-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Chevrons (flashings) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Chicken cracks - Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Chicken cracks - Machining defects
Chill crack - Casting defects
Chill iron marks - Casting defects
Chipping occurs at the center rib - Bearing defects
Chipping – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Chloride corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Chromate patches/streaks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Chromating defects (stain) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Chrome peeling - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Chrome trees - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Chromium oxide on the surface - 1.4016 steel - Cold drawing defects
Circular spall in hardened steel roll - Fractography
Circumferential corrosion - Pipeline defects
Circumferential scar - Pipeline defects
Cissing - Coating defects
Cissing - Coating defects
Clash shifting I - Gear defects - Other defects
Clash shifting II - Gear defects - Other defects
Classification of surface imperfections - Polishing defects
Classification of welding defects
Cleaning circuit-Conductivity electrodes placed in the circuit-'Stray current' corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cleaning circuit-Pipe section-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cleanness II - Ingot defects
Clearcoat yellowing - Paint defects - Coating defects
Cleavage fracture of Fe - 2.5% Si - Fractography
Cleavage in Fe - 2.5% Si - Fractography
Climatic conditions - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Clinched only - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Clinks - Hot rolling defects
Clinks - Ingot defects
Clogged holes/clogged threads - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Clothing fiber in the powder coating film (cured) - Powder coating - Coating defects
Cloud formation at metallic - Powder coating - Coating defects
Cloud formation caused by different film thickness - Powder coating - Coating defects
Clouding - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Clouding/mottling - Paint defects - Coating defects
Coal-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Coated coil defects - Coated coil defects
Coater drip - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Coating failure caused by inadequate primer - Coating defects
Coating inside out - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Coating inside out - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Coating ripple - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coating skips - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Coating terminology
Cobwebbing - Coating defects
Cobwebbing - Coating defects
Coil break - Heat treatment defects
Coil break - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Coil breaks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Coil breaks - Heat treatment defects
Coil breaks - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Coil breaks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coil breaks - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coil digs - Rolling defects
Coil set - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Coil set - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coil set - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coil spring made from AISI H12 tool steel that cracked after heat treatment - Fractography
Coil temper digs - Heat treatment defects
Coil wrench mark - Heat treatment defects
Coiling slip marks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Coiling slip marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Coiling slip marks - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Cold crack (lamellar tear) - Welding defects
Cold crack (root crack, toe crack, underbead crack, transverse crack) - Welding defects
Cold cracking bolts - Hydrogen embrittlement defects
Cold cracks - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Cold flow I - Gear defects - Other defects
Cold flow II - Gear defects - Other defects
Cold indentations - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Cold lap or cold shut - Casting defects
Cold rolling marks - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Cold shot - Casting defects
Cold shot inclusion/spray bead - Casting defects
Cold shot inclusion/spray bead - Casting defects
Cold shut - Casting defects
Cold shut - Casting defects
Cold shut or cold lap - Casting defects
Cold solder - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cold stress crack - Casting defects
Cold strip scratches - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Cold strip scratches - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Cold tapwater system-Pipe section-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cold tapwater system-Pipe section-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cold tearing - Casting defects
Color off-shade - Paint defects - Coating defects
Color compare with the original color sample during the production - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color hue change caused by insufficient adhesion - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color hue change during the production - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color shift at coatings of different manufacturers - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color shift between RAL-cards HR and GL - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color shift caused by a communication mistake - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color variations caused by different application manufacturers - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color variations caused by reclaim - Powder coating - Coating defects
Color-deviation at dormant caused by two different shades in the oven - Powder coating - Coating defects
Colour differences - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Comet tails - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Comet tails - Polishing defects
Common bearing defects - Bearing defects
Common casting defects I - Casting defects
Common casting defects II - Casting defects
Common casting defects III - Casting defects
Common concast defects - Slab defects
Common defects - Drawing defects
Common defects - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Common defects - Paint and coating defects
Common forging defects - Forging defects
Common forging defects - Forging defects
Common heat treatment defects
Common pipeline defects - Pipeline defects
Common rolling defects - Rolling defects
Common slab defects - Slab defects
Common types of rail breaks - Rail defects
Compared the calculated results with the experimental ones of the crack shape from top surface - Rolling defects
Comparison of defect detection systems - Rolling defects
Composite radiant tube - Coating defects
Comprised pretreatment-crystals (salts, chlorides) - Powder coating - Coating defects
Concave fillet weld, convex fillet weld - Welding defects
Conchoidal or "rock candy" fracture - Casting defects
Condensate drip marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Condenser cooler in nitric acid plant-Cooler jacket-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Conductor roll imprint - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Conductor roll stickers - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Conductor roll structure - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Connecting rod defects I - Forging defects
Connecting rod defects II - Forging defects
Connecting rod defects III - Forging defects
Contact marks (rub) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Contaminated sulphuric acid transport pipeline-Plate in a butterfly valve-Cracking corrosion on both sides - Corrosion defects
Contamination (fish-eyes/silicone) - Paint defects - Coating defects
Contamination - Bearing defects
Contamination - Bearing defects
Contamination - Bearing defects
Contamination - Rail defects
Contamination from poor equipment cleaning - Powder coating - Coating defects
Continuous catalytic reforming-furnace tubes-Metal dusting - Corrosion defects
Continuously test of the reclaim - Powder coating - Coating defects
Convergence of groove - Corrosion defects
Convexity and concavity - Welding defects
Cooling cracks - Tool steels - Heat treatment defects
Cooling element of air-cooled sulphuric acid heat exchanger-Sulphuric acid plant-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling system (ammonia)-Insulated steel pipe-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Cooling tower with heat exchanger-Cooler pipe from heat exchanger - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system (open, circulating, with cooling tower)-Pipe section-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Cooling water pump check valve-Graphitization - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Cooling water pump impeller-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Left-hand cooling water pump filter bolt; right-hand new bolt-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cooling water system-Pipe section with branch-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Cope defect, elephant skin, laps - Casting defects
Cope spall, boil scab, erosion scab - Casting defects
Copper brazing - Other defects
Core damage - Casting defects
Core shrinkage - Casting defects
Corner blowholes, draws - Casting defects
Corner crack - Slab defects
Corner cracks - Rolling defects
Corner cracks - Slab defects
Corner cracks at the drawing - 1.4122 steel - Cold drawing defects
Corner or fillet shrinkage - Casting defects
Corner scab - Casting defects
Corroded plate surface - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Corroded plate surface - Corrosion defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Corrosion - Paint defects - Coating defects
Corrosion - Pipeline defects
Corrosion - Pipeline defects
Corrosion - Pipeline defects
Corrosion - Rail defects
Corrosion - Rust - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Rust - Bearing defects
Corrosion - Rust - Bearing defects
Corrosion and perforations of finned economizer tube - Corrosion defects
Corrosion as bubble causale - Powder coating - Coating defects
Corrosion caused by Fe-phosphating on radiated pieces - Powder coating - Coating defects
Corrosion defect - Pipeline defects
Corrosion due to chemicals - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Corrosion due to hydrolysis - Corrosion defects
Corrosion due to incorrect storage - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Corrosion due to incorrect transportation of heavy plates - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Corrosion fatigue - Broken drive shaft - Corrosion defects
Corrosion of large area on the pipe - Pipeline defects
Corrosion of sandblasted work pieces after pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Corrosion resulting from inadequate water washing of external surfaces - Corrosion defects
Corrosion trap - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Corrosion under thermal contraction - Pipeline defects
Corrosion – Maximum permissible - Bearing defects
Corrosion – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Corrosion-fatigue cracking - Corrosion defects
Corrosive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Corrosive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Corrugation - Rail defects
Cr-plated A2 blanking die - Coating defects
Cr-plated A2 blanking die - Coating defects
Crack - Bearing defects
Crack - Forged bar - Forging defects
Crack - Polishing defects
Crack at the bottom of flange - Other defects
Crack defect - Casting defects
Crack initiation at the sharp radius of a plastic mould die - Steel tool defects
Crack-free 'milky' low current density chromium plate - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Cracked edge - Other defects
Cracked in sharp cornes - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Cracked or broken mold - Casting defects
Cracked roll - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Cracked upset forged EX33 - Forging defects
Cracking - Coating defects
Cracking - Coating defects
Cracking at the flash - Forging defects
Cracking during 90 deg. bending - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Cracking of a nitrided quill shaft - Heat treatment defects
Cracking through weld zone - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Cracks - Casting defects
Cracks - Induction thermography - Forging defects
Cracks - Ingot defects
Cracks - Slab defects
Cracks - Welding - Coating defects
Cracks - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Cracks associated with surface irregularities - Ingot defects
Cracks at welds - Pipeline defects
Cracks caused be smearing - Bearing defects
Cracks caused by excessive drive-up - Bearing defects
Cracks caused by fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Cracks caused by rough treatment - Bearing defects
Cracks caused by shrinkage hole - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Cracks in the edge of the tool - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Cracks in the material to be galvanized - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Cracks not accompanied by surface irregularitics - Ingot defects
Cracks occur on outside surface - Bearing defects
Cracks on the surface of an S355J2-NbTi steel - Slab defects
Cracks propageted outward in the axial and circumferential directions from the flaking origin on the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Cracks, breakout shell - Slab defects
Cracks, longitudinal and transverse I - Drawing defects
Cracks, longitudinal and transverse II - Drawing defects
Crank shaft and typical defects - Forging defects
Crater pipes - Welding defects
Crater caused by oil in the compressed air - Powder coating - Coating defects
Crater caused by oil residue - Powder coating - Coating defects
Crater in powder coating film caused by corrosion - Powder coating - Coating defects
Cratering - Coating defects
Cratering - Coating defects
Cratering - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Craters - Bearing defects
Craters - Welding - Coating defects
Craze cracking - Casting defects
Crazing - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Crazing - Coating defects
Crazing - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Crazing - Ingot defects
Create an additional earthing - Powder coating - Coating defects
Creep accompanied by scoring of bore surface - Bearing defects
Creep occurs over entire circumference of outside surface - Bearing defects
Creep rupture (stress rupture) - Corrosion defects
Cross bow - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Cross bow - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Cross bow - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Cross bow - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Cross cavity - Slab defects
Cross section of bulged target-wall tube - Corrosion defects
Cross-section fractures - Slab defects
Crowsfooting - Coating defects
Crowsfooting - Coating defects
Crow’s feet - Casting defects
Crude oil distillation unit-Process pipe-Age embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Crude oil storage tank-Bottom plate weld-Knife line attack (selective leaching) - Corrosion defects
Crush - Casting defects
Crushed - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Crushed head - Rail defects
Crushed head - Rail defects
Crystallographic orientation of the grains - Forging defects
Current leakage - Bearing defects
Current leakage - Bearing defects
Curve - Rolling Defects
Curved defect originating on the internal surface of a seamless tube - Corrosion defects
Cut seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cut-down flange I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cut-down flange II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cutover I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cutover II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Cyclic (alternate) immersion panels with circular holidays after 6 months - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Cyclic (alternate) immersion panels with scribes after 6 months test - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Dairy factory, whey manufacturing unit-Whey transport pipeline-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Damage - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Damage - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Damage by improper tire mounting or improper tire mounting solution - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Damage caused by the passage of electric current - Bearing defects
Damage occurring during further processing - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Damage process - Bearing defects
Damage to bead seat area from the use of incorrect tire lubricant when installing tires - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Damage to scoreline/pull tab - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Damaged bearing cages or retainers - Bearing defects
Damaged coating - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Damaged curl/flange - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Damaged die parts on different dies at different location under similar production condition - Tool steel defects
Damaged ejector - Tool steel defects
Damaged plate edges - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Damaged rail - Rail defects
Damaged rail - Rail defects
Damaged strip edges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Damages due to improper slinging - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Damages occurring during storage - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Damages occurring during transportation - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Damp patch caused by accumulated rust and debris - Coating defects
Dark etching areas & white bands - Bearing defects
Dark etching areas – Hardness changes - Bearing defects
Dealloying - Corrosion defects
Debris around bearings retains moisture - Coating defects
Decarburization of hardened 5160 spring steel bar - Front wheel drive - Heat treatment defects
Decarburized surface of Hadfield Mn steel produces epsilon martensite - Heat treatment defects
Deep caustic gouging beneath insulating internal deposits - Corrosion defects
Deep grooves cut into the hot side of a waterwall tube - Corrosion defects
Deep oscillation marks - Slab defects
Deep seated rust - Bearing defects
Defect found on ID surface of 420 stainless steel mould after polishing - Polishing defects
Defect type overview - Rail defects
Defect types - Pipeline defects
Defect-free zinc coatings - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Defect? - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Defective bearing - Bearing defects
Defective bearing tables and photographs - Bearing defects
Defective coating (teardropping) or poor mold repair - Casting defects
Defective field weld - Rail defects
Defective plant weld - Rail defects
Defective surface - Casting defects
Defective weld - Rail defects
Defective welds - Rail defects
Defects in rolling
Defects in steel products - Slab defects
Defects in the bulk volume of a nitrogen steel riser - Casting defects
Defects of machined surface - Machining defects
Defects resulting changes in the material structure - Pipeline defects
Defects resulting metal loss - Pipeline defects
Deficiency in the original design failure of a steam turbine - Fractography
Deformation and wear of a machined high-tension brass cage - Bearing defects
Deformation due to incorrect storage - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Deformation of the side face of a machined hightension brass cage - Bearing defects
Deformed mold, mold creep, springback - Casting defects
Deformed pattern - Casting defects
Delamination - Coating defects
Delamination - Coating defects
Delamination - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Delamination - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Dent - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Dent - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Dent - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Dent - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Dent of roller - Slab defects
Denting - Bearing defects
Denting/point-surface-origin (PSO) macropitting - Bearing defects
Dents - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Dents - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dents - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dents and buckles - Pipeline defects
Deposit layer on the internal surface of the hot side of a crossover tube - Corrosion defects
Depression defects - Slab defects
Depression mark I - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Depression mark II - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Depressions and pressure damage - Bearing defects
Design overload - die - Tool steels - Fractography
Destructive (progressive) pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Destructive pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Destructive scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Destructive scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Desulphurization plant-6" pipe to the furnace-Hot hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Desulphurization unit-Reactor test block-Sulphur corrosion - Corrosion defects
Detail fracture (welded bond) - Rail defects
Detail fracture associated with welded bond wire connection (traction, signal) - Rail defects
Development of discontinuity in metal
Dew-point corrosion during idle periods - Corrosion defects
Dicontinuities - Casting defects
Die and punch - Tool steels - Fractography
Die casting dies corrosion - Tool steel defects
Die cracked in hardening - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Die cracked in heat-treatment - Tool steels - Fractography
Die damages on a moving die insert - Tool steel defects
Die failed in service - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Die failure caused by severe wear - Fractography
Die failures - Forging defects
Die failures - Forging defects
Die made from AISI Ol tool steel that was found to be cracked after heat treatment - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Die made of high-carbon - Tool steels - Fractography
Die made of high-speed steel - Tool steels - Fractography
Die were tempered after the quench - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Different opacity on steel and aluminum - Powder coating - Coating defects
Different pores seen on billet - Slab defects
Different types of cracks in bars and retired-for-cause piping welds - Welding defects
Dip coat spall, scab - Casting defects
Direct and indirect views of a brittle fracture - Fractography
Dirt - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Dirt - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Dirt embedment - Bearing defects
Dirt inclusions - Paint defects - Coating defects
Dirt on back - Bearing defects
Dirty lubricant - Indentations on raceway - Bearing defects
Dirty lubricant - Indentations on raceway - Bearing defects
Dirty lubricant - Smearing/wear on roller - Bearing defects
Discoloration - Bearing defects
Discoloration and melting of roller rolling surface, adhesion of worn particles from cage - Bearing defects
Discoloration/staining - Polishing defects
Discolorations - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Discolouration - Bearing defects
Discolouration – Acceptable - Bearing defects
Discolouration – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Discontinuity defect-LH15 bearing steel - Forging defects
Discontinuous cracks - Rolling defects
Disjointed ingot - Ingot defects
Dispersed shrinkage - Casting defects
Dispersed shrinkage - Casting defects
Dispersed shrinkage - Casting defects
Dispersed shrinkage - Casting defects
Distillation column-Tray clamp-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Distillation tower-Belleville washers (top specimen unused, bottom specimen corroded)-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Distinctive appearance of spalls - Bearing defects
Distinctive features of sub]surface initiated spalls - Bearing defects
Distinctive features of surface initiated spalls - Bearing defects
Distorted casting - Casting defects
Distorted crank case - Bearing defects
Distorted reform ridge - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Distortion - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Distortion - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Distortion - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Distortion or warp - Casting defects
Distribution and morphology of machined surface defects. - Machining defects
District heating system-Lower part of radiator-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Dog marks, manipulator marks - Hot rolling defects
Double body - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Double end - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Double end - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Double seam dent - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Double skin - Ingot defects
Double skin - Ingot defects
Double teem - Ingot defects
Double-side edge waves - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Drainage runs and streaks - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Drainage spikes - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Drainage spikes - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Draw/blowhole - Casting defects
Drawn-in drawing agent - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Drawn-in scale - 1.2826 steel - Cold drawing defects
Dripped ESR ingot - Ingot defects
Droop I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Droop II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Drop formation - Powder coating - Coating defects
Drop formation caused by a too high film thickness - Powder coating - Coating defects
Dross - Casting defects
Dross entrapment I - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Dross entrapment II - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Dross inclusions - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Dross inclusions - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Dross pimples - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dross spots - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dross striations - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dross sugar - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Dry in - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Dry spray - Coating defects
Ductile fracture - 'Popsac' vessel - Fractography
Ductile fracture - Charpy V notch specimen - Fractography
Ductile fracture - Fractography
Ductile fracture - Microvoid coalescence - Fractography
Ductile fracture in tension - Fractography
Dust in the filter residue - Powder coating - Coating defects
Dust in the reclaim powder (enlarged) - Powder coating - Coating defects
EDM copper and graphite electrodes - EDM machining defects
EDM layers thickness - Orvar Supreme tool steel - EDM machining defects
Early micro cracks on pinion - Bearing defects
Ectocarpus - Plant - Weed or algae fouling - Coating defects
Ectocarpus and Enteromorpha - Plant - Weed or algae fouling - Coating defects
Edge burst - Forging defects
Edge crack - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Edge crack - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Edge crack - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Edge crack - Rolling defects
Edge cracks - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Edge cracks - Slab defects
Edge cracks - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Edge defect - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Edge defect - Tinning - Rolling defects
Edge displacement - Pipeline defects
Edge fault - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Edge fault - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Edge line slivers - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Edge mapping due to solvent penetration - Paint defects - Coating defects
Edge particles - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Edge waves - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Edge waves/Centre waves - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Edge waviness from the quench unit - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Edge “sugar” - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Edge/central waves - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Edge/central waves - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Edges - Sharp - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Edges – Flame cut - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Effect difference at different applications - Powder coating - Coating defects
Effect of forging on microstructure - Forging defects
Effect of heat treatment on as-processed black Ni-P - Coating defects
Effect of immersion time on as-processed black Ni-P - Coating defects
Effect of rainwashing - Coating defects
Effect of stress raisers on stress concentration and distribution of stress - Fractography
Effect of temperature of etching solution on as-processed black Ni-P - Coating defects
Effect-deviations caused by reclaim - Powder coating - Coating defects
Efflorescence - Coating defects
Ejection die - Tool steel defects
Electric current damage - Bearing defects
Electric flash butt welding - Rail defects
Electric pitting - Flaking generated around half the raceway - Bearing defects
Electric pitting - Flaking generated around half the raceway - Bearing defects
Electric pitting and staining - Bearing defects
Electric pitting and staining - Bearing defects
Electrical corrosion has a dark color that covers the entire ball surface - Bearing defects
Electrical current damage – Washboarding/fluting (unacceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical current damage – Washboarding/fluting (unacceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical damage – Pitting (maximum acceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical damage – Strings of pitting (unacceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical damage – Strings of pitting (unacceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical damage – Strings of pitting (unacceptable) - Bearing defects
Electrical erosion - Bearing defects
Electrical erosion - Bearing defects
Elemental copper on wall tube from a high-pressure utility boiler - Corrosion defects
Elephant skin - Casting defects
Elephant skin - Casting defects
Elephant skin and a gas - Casting defects
Elephant skin defect - Casting defects
Elliptical metal-loss pattern and intact island of tube metal at perforated superheater U-bend - Corrosion defects
Elliptical water rings surrounding oxygen pit in a U-bend - Corrosion defects
Elongated porosity - Welding defects
Embrittlement of the material, fractures caused by artificial ageing - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Emulsion mark - Rolling defects
Emulsion marks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Emulsion marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
End cracking - Drawing defects
End yoke vibration - Gear defects - Other defects
Enteromorpha (green grass) - Plant - Weed or algae fouling - Coating defects
Enteromorpha (green grass) - Plant - Weed or algae fouling - Coating defects
Environmental contamination - Paint defects - Coating defects
Erosion - Coating defects
Erosion - Mould - Casting defects
Erosion damage from the bore to just below the outside-diameter surface of an AISI HI3 nozzle from a zinc die-casting die - Fractography
Erosion failure of a high alloyed cold work tool steel - Steel tool defects
Erosion, cut, or wash - Casting defects
Erosion/washout - Casting defects
Etch staining - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Etching – Corrosion - Bearing defects
Etching/corrosion - Bearing defects
Etching/corrosion - Bearing defects
Example of a dent - Pipeline defects
Example of a manufacturing defect - Pipeline defects
Example of a successful polishing treatment - Polishing defects
Example of a successful polishing treatment - Polishing defects
Example of detailed analysis and report of results by laboratory - Tool steel defects
Example of external corrosion - Pipeline defects
Examples of a chrome wheel that has been cleaned with steel wool. - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Examples of acceptable surface finishes - Machining defects
Examples of curb hit (accident) - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Examples of the microstructure of AISI M2 high-speed steel - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Examples of unacceptable surface finishes - Machining defects
Excess aluminum in galvanizing bath - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Excess penetration bead - Welding I - Coating defects
Excess penetration bead - Welding II - Coating defects
Excess rapping of pattern - Casting defects
Excessive reinforcement - Welding defects
Excessive abrasion type wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Excessive cleaning - Casting defects
Excessive concavity - Welding defects
Excessive concavity or convexity - Welding defects
Excessive convexity - Welding defects
Excessive endplay - Bearing defects
Excessive loads - Bearing defects
Excessive loads - Bearing defects
Excessive loads - Bearing defects
Excessive melt-through (burn-through) - Welding defects
Excessive preload or overload - Bearing defects
Excessive preload or overload - Bearing defects
Excessive preload or overload - Bearing defects
Excessive quenching stress - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Excessive quenching-stress - Tool steels - Fractography
Excessive reinforcement - Welding defects
Excessive roller end heat - Bearing defects
Excessive solder - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Excessive stress - Tool steels - Fractography
Excessive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Excessive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Excessive wear - Machining defects
Excessive weld reinforcement - Welding defects
Excessively deep or weak scoreline - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Exfoliation corrosion - Fractography
Expansion scab - Casting defects
Explosion penetration - Casting defects
Explosion penetration - Mould - Casting defects
Extensive longitudinal crack in a stainless steel soot-blower line - Corrosion defects
External and internal surfaces of a 0.17 % C-steel billet cast without and with mould oscillation - Slab defects
External surface of economizer tube following dew-point corrosion - Corrosion defects
Extraneous rust - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Fading - Coating defects
Fading - Coating defects
Failed AISI H26 exhaust-valve punch - Fractography
Failed AISI S7 jewelry striking die - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Failed cast HH stainless steel furnace hook due sigma phase embrittlement - Fractography
Failed over-austenitized A2 rotary knife - Heat treatment defects
Failure along a massive manufacturing defect in the tube wall - Corrosion defects
Failure caused by a forging lap in a sledge-hammer head - Forging defects - Fractography
Failure caused by improper quenching - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Failure due to a band of carbides - Fractography
Failure of a cage and roller assembly - Bearing defects
Failure of a long I-beam - Fractography - Rail defects
Failure of a piston in a marine engine - Fractography
Failure of a steam turbine - Fractography
Failure of bolts in a radar antenna system reflector joint - Fractography
Failure of wax barrier coat - Coating defects
Failures from ineffective sealing - Bearing defects
Failures from the passage of electric current - Bearing defects
Failures from vibration - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling - Bearing defects
False brinelling occurs on rolling surface - Bearing defects
False brinelling occurs on the raceway - Bearing defects
False brinelling occurs on the raceway - Bearing defects
False brinelling of raceway surface at ball pitch - Bearing defects
False position caused by incompatibility of the flux - Powder coating - Coating defects
False seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Fat-arrears after pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Fatigue - Bearing defects
Fatigue - Bearing defects
Fatigue pre-crack and ductile fracture of 304 austenitic stainless steel CVN specimen - Fractography
Fatigue pre-crack and ductile fracture of a carbon steel CVN specimen - Fractography
Fatigue breakage - Gear defects - Other defects
Fatigue crack - Fractography
Fatigue crack - Gear defects - Other defects
Fatigue crack - Gear defects - Other defects
Fatigue crack - Pipeline defects
Fatigue crack in 304 stainless steel - Fractography
Fatigue crack nucleation - Fractography defects
Fatigue cracks in 1 1/4-in.—diam hollow rock-drill steel - Tool steels - Fractography
Fatigue failure (pitting) - Gear defects - Other defects
Fatigue fracture emanating from pit - Gear defects - Other defects
Fatigue fractures - Fractography
Fatigue or flaking (defect shown 2 - 3 mm) – unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fatigue or flaking – unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fatigue spall - Bearing defects
Fatigue started at shrinkage cavity - Fractography
Fatigue striations - Fractography
Fatique - Bearing defects
Fatique fracture - Bearing defects
Fatique striation patterns - Fractography
Faulty sealing compound I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Faulty sealing compound II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
FeZn layer - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Feather - Heat treatment defects
Feathering - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Feathering/feather - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Feathering/feather - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Feathering/feather - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Feed rollers - Tool steels - Fractography
Feedwater supply could not meet boiler demand - Corrosion defects
Fibers at the reclaim - Powder coating - Coating defects
Fibers in the powder coating surface - Powder coating - Coating defects
Filiform - Coating defects
Fillet - Casting defects
Fillet - Casting defects
Fillet scab - Casting defects
Fillet scabs - Casting defects
Fillet vein - Casting defects
Film build varies - Powder coating - Coating defects
Film thickness too high (ornateness) - Powder coating - Coating defects
Film thickness too low - Powder coating - Coating defects
Filter residues cause powder spitters - Powder coating - Coating defects
Fin - Ingot defects
Fine, striated grooves on front face of final-stage turbine blade caused by water-droplet impingement - Corrosion defects
Fingerprint corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Fins - Drawing defects
Fins - Ingot defects
Fins - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Fins and laps - Rolling defects
Fire crack marks - Ingot defects
Fire crack transfer marks - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Fire cracks - Rolling defects
Fire-side corrosion - Corrosion defects
Fire-crack - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
First stage reactor-Hydrocraking - Corrosion defects
Fish-boning - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Fish-tail - Rolling defects
Fisheye III - Fractography
Fishtail mark - Rolling defects
Fishtails - Hot rolling defects
Fissure defects - Mould - Casting defects
Fissure frequency - Tool steels - EDM machining defects
Fixture made from AISI Ol tool steel that cracked during oil quenching - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Flakes - Forging defects
Flakes of scale - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Flaking (spalling) - Bearing defects
Flaking - Coating defects
Flaking - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Flaking - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Flaking - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Flaking - Rail defects
Flaking - Rail defects
Flaking - Rail defects
Flaking caused by axial compression - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by deep seated rust - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by deep seated rust - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by fluting or craters - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by fluting or craters - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by indentations - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by misalignment - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by oval compression - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by preloading - Bearing defects
Flaking caused by smearing - Bearing defects
Flaking occurs around half of the circumference of the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Flaking occurs diagonally along raceway - Bearing defects
Flaking of ball surface - Bearing defects
Flaking of only one raceway over its entire circumference - Bearing defects
Flaking of only one raceway over its entire circumference - Bearing defects
Flaking of only one row of raceway - Bearing defects
Flaking of raceway at ball pitch - Bearing defects
Flaking of raceway at ball pitch - Bearing defects
Flaking of raceway at ball pitch - Bearing defects
Flaking/spalling - Gear defects - Other defects
Flame-cut edge defects - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Flange burrs - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Flank wear - Machining defects
Flanking - Coating defects
Flash - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Flash - Ingot defects
Flash defect - Casting defects
Flash residue/Zinc wrap-around - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Flash/casting - Casting defects
Flash/core - Casting defects
Flat roll scratch - 1.4401 steel - Cold drawing defects
Flat roll scratch - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Flat shoulder tool welded plate - Welding defects
Flatness - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Flatness defects - Rolling defects
Flattened rail - Rail defects
Flattened rail - Rail defects
Fleck scale - Rolling defects
Flecking - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Flocculation - Coating defects
Flooding - Coating defects
Flotation - Coating defects
Flow marks - Casting defects
Flow marks, crow's feet - Casting defects
Flowed rail - Rail defects
Fluid - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Fluid catalytic cracking-Mounting hardware for instrumentation-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Fluid catalytic cracking-Regenerator-Carbonate stress corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Fluid drop - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Fluidization - the powder has to flow like water - Powder coating - Coating defects
Fluted body - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Fluting - Bearing defects
Fluting - Bearing defects
Fluting occurs on the raceway surface (High frequency) - Bearing defects
Fluting occurs on the raceway surface (High frequency) - Bearing defects
Flux inclusion - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Flux inclusions - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Flux stains - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Fly-ash erosion - Corrosion defects
Fold - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Fold - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Fold - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Folded strip edges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Folds - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Foot imprint - Rolling defects
Forced fracture - Bearing defects
Foreign contamination inside - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Foreign material - Polishing defects
Foreign material in the surface - 1.7225 steel - Cold drawing defects
Foreign object damage of turbine blades - Fractography
Foreign particles in coating - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Forging bursts - Forging defects
Forging defects
Forging dies - Tool steel defects
Forging lap on ski lift fixed jaw - Tool steel defects
Forging laps in large roll - Forging defects
Fork pad wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Fork shoe wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Formation of friction martensite at the drawing - 1.6582 steel - Cold drawing defects
Fracture and cracking - Bearing defects
Fracture in welds because of weld imperfections (Bend test) - Welding defects
Fracture in welds because of weld imperfections (Tension test) - Welding defects
Fracture occurs at the cone back face rib - Bearing defects
Fracture occurs at the large rib - Bearing defects
Fracture occurs at the outer ring rib - Bearing defects
Fracture of high-speed steel bar after single quench - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Fracture of machined high-tension brass cage - Bearing defects
Fracture of pearlite vs. striations - Fractography
Fracture of pressed-steel cage-pocket - Bearing defects
Fracture – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fracture – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fractured bottom profile - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Fractured casting - Casting defects
Fractured pin and gripping cam made from AISI S5 tool steel - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Fractured seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Fractured section of an AISI W2 die insert that cracked during rehardening - Fractography
Fractures and cracking - Bearing defects
Freon cooling system-Compressor suction pipe-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Fretting - Bearing defects
Fretting - Bearing defects
Fretting corrosion (sun pinion) - Gear defects - Other defects
Fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Fretting occurs on the bore surface - Bearing defects
Fretting occurs on the raceway surface at roller pitch intervals - Bearing defects
Fretting on one race of each bearing - Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fretting on outer diameter - Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Fretting wear - Fractography
Fretting wear of raceway and stepped wear on the rib face - Bearing defects
Friction-induced martensite at adge of cracked air-wear scrap chopper knife - Fractography
Friction-induced martensite layer on rail head caused spalling - Fractography
Frictional oxidation - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Frosted raceway surface - Bearing defects
Frosting - Gear defects - Other defects
Frosting I - Gear defects - Other defects
Frosting II - Gear defects - Other defects
Full-scale CRB smearing test program I - Bearing defects
Full-scale CRB smearing test program II - Bearing defects
Full-scale CRB smearing test program III - Bearing defects
Furnace roll pimples - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Furrowing - Gear defects - Other defects
Fusion - Casting defects
Fusion weld joint - Welding defects
Fusion or melting during heat treatment - Casting defects
Galling - Bearing defects
Gamma layer - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) - Welding defects
Gas cooler-Pipe-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Gas defects - Casting defects
Gas defects in casting - Casting defects
Gas piping system-Wall section-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas porosity - Casting defects
Gas porosity - Casting defects
Gas pressure welds - Rail defects
Gas supply system-Underground coupling-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas supply system-Underground pipe (bitumen-coated)-Stray current corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas supply system-Underground pipe (wrapped in tape)-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gas trapping - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Gate on rollers-Tubular railings-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Gauge-corner shelling - Rail defects
Gear micropitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Gear surface-temper failure - Gear defects - Other defects
Gear tooth profile terminology - Gear defects - Other defects
General corrosion - Pipeline defects
General location local corrosion - Pipeline defects
General location scar - Pipeline defects
Generator rotor shaft - Other defects
Geometric pattern - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Geometric stress conc. (GSC) spalling - Bearing defects
Geometric stress concentration (GSC) spalling - Bearing defects
Geometrical defects - Pipeline defects
Glue plant-Autoclave charge pipe-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gouging - Pipeline defects
Gouging along internal surface opposite fins - Corrosion defects
Grain boundary attack - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Grain boundary attack - 1.4303 steel - Cold drawing defects
Grain boundary carbide networks caused the fracture of this carborized 1035 track wheel - Fractography
Grainy appearance/spangling - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Graphite degradation - Machining defects
Graphitic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Grating floors of an outdoor chemical plant- Part of a floor section-Atmospheric corrosion - Corrosion defects
Gray coating due to processing - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Gray coating due to temperature differences - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Grease or dirt pits - Other defects
Grey bar - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Greying caused by cleaning compounds - Powder coating - Coating defects
Grinder's scorch - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding burns - Machining defects
Grinding crack on hard chromed steel shaft - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - 0.70C-0.40Si-2.15Mn-1.15Cr-1.15Mo steel - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Gear defects - Other defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding cracks - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding cracks and holes - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding cracks caused by failure to temper a part - Machining defects - Fractography
Grinding cracks-3% Cr cold work tool steel - Machining defects
Grinding cracks-network - Machining defects
Grinding defect - Tool steels - Machining defects
Grinding defect I - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding defect II - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Grinding failure of 1.2842 tool steel - Steel tool defects
Grinding marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Grinding off - Pipeline defects
Grinding vs. time - Rail defects
Grinning - Coating defects
Grinning - Coating defects
Gripper die - Tool steels - Fractography
Gripper die - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Grit inclusions - Coating defects
Groove (scratches) - Polishing defects
Groove (scratches) - Polishing defects
Groove defect by shelling at the roll - 1.7139 steel - Cold drawing defects
Grooved or flaky surface - ESR ingot defects
Grooves - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Grooving and perforation of a slanted tube resulting from corrosive water dripping from above - Corrosion defects
Grooving on pendant U-bend superheater leg caused by steam leaking through a corrosion-fatigue crack at the U-bend - Corrosion defects
Growth - Coating defects
Guide marks - Hot rolling defects
H2S stripping tower-Hydrodesulfurisation - Corrosion defects
HF alkylation-Piping-HF stress corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Handling and installation damage - Bearing defects
Handling damage resulting in nicks in the raceways – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Handling damage to the cage – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Handling damage to the roller body – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Hard spots - Casting defects
Hardening stress crack - 1.7035 steel - Cold drawing defects
Haze - Polishing defects
Head and web separation - Rail defects
Head and web separation - Rail defects
Head check - Rail defects
Head checking - Rail defects
Head checks - Rail defects
Head checks - Rail defects
Header die made from AISI Wl tool steel that failed prematurely in service - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Header dies used for hot-heading of bolts - Tool steels - Fractography
Heading die - Tool steels - Fractography
Heat buckle - Rolling defects
Heat checked surface of failed hot work die steel after extensive service - Fractography
Heat damage - Coating defects
Heat discoloration - Bearing defects
Heat exchanger-Attacked tube from bundle, with a new tube below it for comparison-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Heat scratches - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Heat-checked die - Casting defects
Heating system (with heating oil)-Valve bolts-Liquid metal embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Heavily pitted condensate line - Corrosion defects
Heavy scale - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Herringbone, pock mark, mouse footmark - Welding defects
Hiding power (coverage, opacity) - Paint defects - Coating defects
High cycle fatigue - Gear defects - Other defects
High pressure boiler, fired with heavy oil-Furnace evaporator tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
High pressure boiler-Economizer pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
High pressure boiler-Evaporator tube-Intergranular hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
High spots - Rolling defects
High spots and fitting practices - Bearing defects
High temperature oxidation failure of aluminized steel heater tubes - Corrosion defects
High-pressure boiler-Spindle of high-pressure reducing valve for the sampling of boiler water-Erosion - Corrosion defects
High-speed steel (18-4-1 type) wheel-forming tool - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
High-speed steel reamer - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
High-vacuum distillation unit-Furnace tube-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
High-vacuum distillation unit-Process pipe-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hindered contraction - Casting defects
Hob marks - Gear defects - Other defects
Hobbing die - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Hobbled bullet - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Hole - Cold rolling defects
Hole - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Hole - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Hole - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Hole - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Hole - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Hole - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Hole - Polishing defects
Hole - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Hole - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Hole due sliver - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Hole in the ingot surface - Ingot defects
Holes - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Holes - Slab defects
Holes - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Holes - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Holes - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Holes/pull-out - Polishing defects
Holes/pits on tool surface - Polishing defects
Horizontal cracking - Rail defects
Horizontal cracking defects - Rail defects
Horizontal split head - Rail defects
Horizontal split head - Rail defects
Horizontal split head - Rail defects
Hot crack (crater crack, longitudinal crack, pear-shape crack, sulfur crack) - Welding defects
Hot cracking - Casting defects
Hot cracks - Ingot defects
Hot cracks - Slab defects
Hot indentations - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Hot mill folds - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Hot short - Bearing defects
Hot shortness and burnt - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Hot spots - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Hot strip scratches - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Hot strip, pickling and cold strip scratches - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Hot tapwater system-Electrically heated coil-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Galvanic corrosion by cementation - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe section-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe sections-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Pipe-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Tube (sawn into pieces)-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Underground pipe section-Stray current corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tapwater system-Wall of hot water storage tank-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hot tear - Ingot defects
Hot tearing - Casting defects
Hot tears - Casting defects
Hot tears - Casting defects
Hot water heating system-Three-way valve positioned in the return pipe of steam generator at the bypass junction-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Hot water system, 160 C-Heating tube from make-up water vessel-Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential) - Corrosion defects
Hot-rolled strip - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Hot-shortness - Hot rolling defects
Hot-strip scratches - Rolling defects
Housing bearing bore wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Hydrochloric acid transport pipe-Metal strengthener around plastic bellows-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Hydrodesulfurizer unit-gas oil heater-Creep and cracks - Corrosion defects
Hydrofluoric alkylation plant-Wall-Cold hydrogen attack - Corrosion defects
Hydrogen blister in structural web steel - Fractography
Hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Hydrogen embrittlement - Fractography
Hydrogen embrittlement - Other defects
Hydrogen embrittlement, delayed fractures - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Hydrogen embrittlement Failure of a rocket suspension lug - Fractography
Hydrogen flakes - Fractography
Hydrogen flakes in 4142 screw shaft - Fractography
Hydrogen flakes on 4140 alloy steel plate (flame cut) - Fractography
Hydrogen-induced cracks - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Hydroid – Tubularia - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Ident - Cold rolling defects
Idle-time corrosion occurring beneath refractory - Corrosion defects
Images of the final surfaces of material ESR - Polishing defects
Impact damage - Coating defects
Impact damage - Coating defects
Impact load - Cracks and chips - Bearing defects
Impact load - Flaking at intervals on ball pitch - Bearing defects
Impact load - Retainer broken - Bearing defects
Impact load - Seizure caused by chios and ribs - Bearing defects
Imperfect shape - Welding defects
Imprint - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Improper EDM caused failure of this AISI A2 blanking die - Machining defects
Improper adjustment - Seizure at roller end surface - Bearing defects
Improper adjustment - Smearing - Bearing defects
Improper feeding of stock - Tool steels - Fractography
Improper fit - Creep - Bearing defects
Improper fit - Fretting corrosion - Bearing defects
Improper fit - Scuffing - Bearing defects
Improper fit in housings or shafts - Bearing defects
Improper handling - Bearing defects
Improper installation - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Improper lubrication - Heat discoloration - Bearing defects
Improper lubrication - Scuffing - Bearing defects
Improper lubrication - Wear - Bearing defects
Improper mounting - Bearing defects
Improper shifting I - Gear defects - Other defects
Improper shifting II - Gear defects - Other defects
Improper shrinkage allowance - Casting defects
Improper tire mounting lubricant - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Improper weld contour - Welding defects
Improper weld contour - Welding defects
Inadequate annealing - Heat treatment defects
Inadequate lubrication - Bearing defects
Inadequate lubrication I - Gear defects - Other defects
Inadequate lubrication II - Gear defects - Other defects
Inadequate zinc adhesion (cold adhesion) - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Inappropriate basket-pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Incipient melting - Heat treatment defects
Inclusion defect - Casting defects
Inclusion origin spalling - Bearing defects
Inclusion origin spalling - Bearing defects
Inclusions of pickle and flux residues - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Inclusions trapped in a spherical sand trap - Casting defects
Inclusions – slag - Casting defects
Incompatible coatings - Coating defects
Incomplete & excessive penetration - Welding defects
Incomplete bottom profile - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Incomplete casting - Casting defects
Incomplete curl - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Incomplete flange I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Incomplete flange II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Incomplete fusion - Welding defects
Incomplete joint penetration - Welding defects
Incomplete joint penetration - Welding defects
Incorect coating system I - Coating defects
Incorect coating system II - Coating defects
Incorrect grease - Bearing defects
Incorrect installation - Bearing defects
Indentation - Bearing defects
Indentation - Forging defects
Indentation brinelling – Marginal - Bearing defects
Indentation marks - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Indentations - Maximum permissible - Bearing defects
Indentations and protuberances - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Indentations caused by faulty mounting or overloading - Bearing defects
Indentations caused by foreign particles - Bearing defects
Indentations caused by scale of external origin - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Indentations occurring during cold forming - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Indentations occurring during hot forming - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Indentations on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Indentations – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Indentats by handling - Bearing defects
Industrial fallout - Paint defects - Coating defects
Infiltration caused by an insufficient pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Infiltration caused by chemical exposure - Powder coating - Coating defects
Influence of anvil shape of surface crack generation in large hot forging process - Forging defects
Influence of cutting speed in turned surfaces - Machining defects
Influencing parameters during the polishing process - Polishing defects
Ingate hot crack - Casting defects
Ingot cracks - Ingot defects
Ingot head tension crack - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 1.1 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 1.2 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 2.1 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 2.2 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 3.1 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 3.2 - Ingot defects
Ingot surface – Ingot 4.1 - Ingot defects
Ingot surfaces - Ingot defects
Initial (corrective) pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Initial pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Initial pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Initial scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Inner ring fretting both sides – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Inner ring fretting one side – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Insect marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Installation damage around location pin hole – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Insufficient cleaning - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Insufficient degreasing - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Insufficient fill on the root side (suckback) - Welding defects
Insufficient fill or under fill - Welding defects
Insufficient overlap - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Insufficient solder - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Insufficient wet out caused by corrision - Powder coating - Coating defects
Insufficient wet out caused by oilcoal - Powder coating - Coating defects
Insufficient wet out of the substrate - Powder coating - Coating defects
Intercoat contamination - Coating defects
Intercrystalline corrosion - 1.4105 steel - Cold drawing defects
Intergranular SCC in 4340 alloy steel - Corrosion defects
Intergranular corrosion - Casting defects
Intergranular crack resulting from hydrogen embrittlement - Other defects
Intergranular cracks - Hard chome coating - Coating defects
Intergranular fracture of Ni-base alloy - Fractography
Intergranular rinsing load fracture - Fractography
Internal LME during hot rolling of this high-Cu bearing structural steel II - Rolling defects
Internal cracking in over-heated 4147 modified compressor disc - Forging defects
Internal or blind shrinkage - Casting defects
Internal shrinkage cavities - Casting defects
Internal surface of condensate line - Corrosion defects
Internal surface of downcomer tube showing oxygen-assisted chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Internal sweating, phosphide sweat - Casting defects
Internal sweating, cold short, short iron - Casting defects
Interrupted pour - Casting defects
Interruption in the physical continuity of the slab casting
Inverted inside coating - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Iron oxide - Corrosion defects
Iron oxide - Polishing defects
Irregular contraction - Casting defects
Jaggedness associated with severe acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Joint flash defect - Casting defects
Joint flash or fins - Casting defects
Jumped seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Ketchup plant-Part of cast pump casing-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Ketchup plant-Product pipelines-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Key tab not properly tucked - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Key tab seamed to inside - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Knob - Pipeline defects
Knocked-down curl - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Knocked-down end - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Knocked-down flange - Metal can defects - Coating defects
LMAC - Coating defects
LMAC - Welding defects
LME of 1072 axle by copper - Fractography
Laboratory test specimens - Cu induced liquid metal embrittlement - Fractography
Lack of alloying penetration - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Lack of lubrication - Fractography
Lack of lubrication - Gear defects - Other defects
Lack of penetration - Welding defects
Lactic acid storage tank-Base (with drain)-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Lamellar tearing - Welding defects
Laminated plate - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Lamination - Cold rolling defects
Lamination - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Lamination - Other defects
Lamination - Tinning - Rolling defects
Laminations - Rolling defects
Laminations - Rolling defects
Laminations or shelling - Coating defects
Laminations, surface shelling or hackles - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Landslid - Pipeline defects
Lap formation in a hot forging - Forging defects
Lapped grinding I - Pipeline defects
Lapped grinding II - Pipeline defects
Laps - Drawing defects
Laps - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Laps - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Laps - Hot rolling defects
Laps - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Large non-metallic inclusions - Generator rotor shaft - Forging defects
Large nonmetallic inclusions - Forging defects
Large spalls - Bearing defects
Large v-block - Casting defects
Large voids - Hard chrome defects - Coating defects
Large wall section blown out of a hydrogen-damaged tube from a 2075-psi (14.3-MPa) boiler - Corrosion defects
Large, fish-mouth rupture of rifled nose-arch tube - Corrosion defects
Large, wide-open rupture in a superheater tube of a waste-heat boiler - Corrosion defects
Laser cutting edge defects - Machining defects
Lateral (gauge corner) wear - Rail defects
Lead dross - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Letter stamp die - Tool steels - Fractography
Light wear/fretting – Acceptable - Bearing defects
Light wear/fretting – Marginal - Bearing defects
Line spall in haedened steel roll - Fractography
Line-stop fault - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Linear misalignment - Welding defects
Lines with strong pickling attack - 1.4401 steel - Cold drawing defects
Lip fractures - Bearing defects
Liquid-metal assisted cracking - Fractography
List of anodizing defects - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Localized melting at the surface of a part made from AISI M2 tool steel - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Localized metal loss in a bend of a condensate return header - Corrosion defects
Localized scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Long-pitch corrugations - Rail defects
Longitudinal and transverse cracks - Slab defects
Longitudinal and transverse fissures near rolled end - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal bow - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Longitudinal cavity - Slab defects
Longitudinal central crack of type II - Slab defects
Longitudinal corrosion - Pipeline defects
Longitudinal crack along the side of a 90° bend in an economizer tube - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal crack - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Longitudinal crack - Rolling defects
Longitudinal cracks - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Longitudinal cracks - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Longitudinal cracks - Slab defects
Longitudinal cracks - Slab defects
Longitudinal cracks - Slab defects
Longitudinal cracks on surface and edge areas - Ingot defects
Longitudinal depression - Slab defects
Longitudinal depressions - Slab defects
Longitudinal fissure adjacent to stud - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fissure running from the edge of a large, wide-open rupture. - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fissures along hot side - Corrosion defects
Longitudinal fractures - Slab defects
Longitudinal line defect - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Longitudinal pitting - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Longitudinal scar - Pipeline defects
Longitudinal scoring - Ingot defects
Longitudinal scoring - Ingot defects
Longitudinal shell stripes - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Longitudinal splitting - Heat treatment defects
Longitudinal surface crack - Slab defects
Longitudinal surface cracks - Hot rolling defects
Longitudinal vertical cracking - Rail defects
Longitudinal vs. transverse cracks - Welding defects
Longitudinally split blowdown line with severe localized metal loss caused by cavitation - Corrosion defects
Loose fits - Bearing defects
Loose fits - Bearing defects
Loose seams - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Loran tower eyebolt failure - Fractography
Loss of adhesion - Coating defects
Loss of gloss/matting - Paint defects - Coating defects
Loss of section - Coating defects
Low cycle fatigue (over load) - Gear defects - Other defects
Low hardening temperature I - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Low hardening temperature II - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Low-pH gouging - Corrosion defects
Lubricant degradation - Bearing defects
Lubricant failure - Bearing defects
Lubricant failure - Bearing defects
Lubricant failure - Bearing defects
Lug/mould damage - Casting defects
Lump - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Lustrous carbon - Casting defects
Lustrous carbon film - Casting defects
Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks - Casting defects
Lustrous carbon inclusions - Mould - Casting defects
M-defect - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
M-defects - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Machining defect caused by thread forming - Machining defects
Machining surface defect - AISI 1215 steel - Machining defects
Macro- or microshrinkage, shrinkage porosity, leakers - Casting defects
Macroetch showing decarburized surface of steel bar - Forging defects
Macroetched (10% aqueous nitric acid) face of a cutter blade made from AISI S7 steel - Fractography
Macropitting - Bearing defects
Macroporosity - Casting defects
Macroscale fractographic features - Other defects
Macrosegregation - Ingot defects
Macrostructure of the crosswise - Slab defects
Magnetism - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Magnetite blisters - Corrosion defects
Malformed or incomplete abuse bead - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Manganese oil-hardening steel die which cracked in heat—treatment - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Many pits occur due to electrical corrosion and waveshaped wear on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Marks - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Massive rupture of tube along a weld-seam defect - Corrosion defects
Massive ruptures - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Massive thick-walled fracture caused by creep - Corrosion defects
Mechanical damage - 1.7225 steel - Cold drawing defects
Mechanical damage - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Mechanical damage - Pipeline defects
Mechanical damage - Pipeline defects
Mechanical damage - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Mechanical damage defect - Casting defects
Mechanical damage of the surface - 1.7076 steel - Cold drawing defects
Mechanical defect - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Mechanical deformation - Pipeline defects
Mechanical fault - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Medium scale (scale pits) - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Melting - Other defects
Mercaptan transport system-Pipe section-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting I - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting II - Corrosion defects
Metal dusting III - Corrosion defects
Metal embrittlement - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Metal expansion penetration - Casting defects
Metal expansion penetration - Casting defects
Metal expansion penetration - Casting defects
Metal fin - ESR ingot defects
Metal loss - Pipeline defects
Metal loss from strong acid - Corrosion defects
Metal loss from the external surface near a longitudinally oriented fin - Corrosion defects
Metal particles oxidate at the cleaning - Powder coating - Coating defects
Metal penetration - Casting defects
Metal penetration - Casting defects
Metal penetration - Casting defects
Metal penetration - Casting defects
Metal penetration - Mould - Casting defects
Metal splashes - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Metallic chrome plated surface - Coating defects
Metallic inclusions - Casting defects
Metallographic section from the AISI P20 mold - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Metallurgical anomalies - Pipeline defects
Methods for preventing defect propagation - Rolling defects
Mettalic projection - Casting defects
Micro-cavities - Mould - Casting defects
Micro-pitting (frosting) - Gear defects - Other defects
Micropitting and macropitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Micropitting/macropitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Microscale fractography features - Other defects
Microstructural characteristics of overheating - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Microstructure of hot-dip galvanized coating - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Microweld fefect failure of a Hip posthesis - Fractography
Mild abrasion - Gear defects - Other defects
Mild abrasion - Gear defects - Other defects
Mild polishing wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Milk products storage and distribution system-Conveyor plate-Attack by alkaline water - Corrosion defects
Mill defects - Rail defects
Mill scale - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Mill/constr. defects - Pipeline defects
Milling cutter - Tool steels - Fractography
Milling cutters - Tool steels - Fractography
Mini-spanglizer - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Mis runs and cold shuts - Casting defects
Mis-locked side seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Mis-notch - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Misalignment (hi-lo) - Welding defects
Misalignment (inclination of bearings) - Flaking on oppossite faces raceway - Bearing defects
Misalignment (inclination of bearings) - Retainer broken - Bearing defects
Misalignment (inclination of bearings) - Symmetrical fretting - Bearing defects
Misalignment - Bearing defects
Misalignment - Bearing defects
Misalignment - Bearing defects
Misalignment - Bearing defects
Misalignment and inaccurate seat and shoulder machining - Bearing defects
Misalignment failure - Casting defects
Misembossing - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Mishandling - Dents on retainer - Bearing defects
Mishandling - Flaking at intervals on roller pitch - Bearing defects
Mishandling - Scratches/scuffing - Bearing defects
Mishandling - Scuffing on bore surface - Bearing defects
Mismatch - Casting defects
Mismatch - Casting defects
Mismatch in mold - Casting defects
Misrun - Casting defects
Misrun - Casting defects
Misrun - Casting defects
Misses/skips/holidays - Coating defects
Missing topcoat - Coating defects
Moderate adhesive wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Moderate scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Moderate scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Moderate wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Moderate wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Modes of gear failures - Gear defects - Other defects
Moil point made of AISI Wl tool steel that exhibited a rough, scaled surface after heat treatment - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Moisture blisters - Paint defects - Coating defects
Moisture corrosion - Bearing defects
Moisture corrosion - Bearing defects
Mold burned onto ingot 1.1 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 1.2 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 2.1 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 2.2 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 3.1 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 3.2 - Ingot defects
Mold burned onto ingot 4.1 - Ingot defects
Mold drop - Casting defects
Mold drop or sticker - Casting defects
Molding material defects - Casting defects
Mortar residues on the powder coat layer (microscope view) - Powder coating - Coating defects
Mortar residues on the powder coat layer - Powder coating - Coating defects
Mould damage - Casting defects
Mud cracking - Coating defects
Mud cracking - Coating defects
Multiple cracks - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Multiple cracks - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Multiple spall - Bearing defects
Multiple, abrupt bulges on the hot face of a waterwall tube of a recovery boiler - Corrosion defects
Necked-in can - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Neglect - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Network cracks - Slab defects
Network cracks in zinc coatings - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Nicked rail - Rail defects
Nitric acid condenser-Condenser tubes-Intergranular corrosion internally, crevice corrosion externally - Corrosion defects
Nitric acid plant-Vessel wall section (on both sides)-Weld decay (intergranular corrosion near the weld) - Corrosion defects
No adhesion of the top coat caused by directed heated gas oven - Powder coating - Coating defects
No earthing at multi coated hooks - Powder coating - Coating defects
No heat treatment - Heat treatment defects
No second operation - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Non-metallic inclusions - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Non-metallic inclusions - Ingot defects
Normal dedendum wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Normal fatigue - Bearing defects
Normal fatigue failure - Bearing defects
Normal fatique failure - Bearing defects
Normal wear - Bearing defects
Normal wear - Bearing defects
Notable fretting occurs over entire circumference of bore surface - Bearing defects
Notcher trim still attached - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Nozzle smears (knife smears) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Nozzle streaks (knife marks) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Nut tap failures - Tool steels - Fractography
Off register body blank coating - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Offset spalling - Gear defects - Other defects
Oil contamination - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Oil cooler-Heat exchanger plates-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Oil distillation plant-Column wall-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Oil mark - Rolling defects
Oil marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Oil starvation - Bearing defects
Oil-ash corrosion - Corrosion defects
Oilcoal caused by welding work - Powder coating - Coating defects
Old joints - Pipeline defects
Old muffle design - Other defects
Once-through cooling system-Flange from conveyor line-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Once-through cooling water system-Heat exchanger-Galvanic corrosion (with general corrosion and crevice corrosion) - Corrosion defects
One-side edge waves - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Open or external shrinkage - Casting defects
Open or weak lap - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Open weld - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Orange peel - Coating defects
Orange peel - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Orange peel - Polishing defects
Orange peel - Polishing defects
Orange peel - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Orange peel - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Orange peel effect - Powder coating - Coating defects
Orange peel, metal mold reaction, alligator skin - Casting defects
Orange peel/texture - Paint defects - Coating defects
Orange peeling - Coating defects
Ordinary crack - Pipeline defects
Origin is directly beneath the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Oscillation marks - Slab defects
Oscillation marks I - Slab defects
Oscillation marks II - Slab defects
Other rolled-in extraneous matter - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Out-of-square body - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Outer ring fracture - Bearing defects
Outside diameter corrosion – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Outside surface crack developing on the raceway - Bearing defects
Oval bars - Slab defects
Ovality - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Ovality - Pipeline defects
Over heating - Bearing defects
Overfill, flipper, springer, and swell - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Overfilled - Hot rolling defects
Overfilling - Bearing defects
Overheating - Bearing defects
Overheating - Bearing defects
Overheating - Bearing defects
Overheating test series ASTM A508 class II forging grade - Fractography - Forging defects
Overlap - Welding defects
Overlap - Welding defects
Overlap - Welding defects
Overlap - Welding defects
Overlap - Welding defects
Overlap and fishtail - Rolling defects
Overlap by an surface near slag - 1.4105 steel - Cold drawing defects
Overlapping - Bearing defects
Overlay fatigue - Bearing defects
Overload - Bearing defects
Overload breakage - Gear defects - Other defects
Overnitrided surface of 1.2379 steel - Steel tool defects
Overpickled surface - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Overspray - Coating defects
Oxide inclusion or skins, seams - Casting defects
Oxide lines - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Oxide scale - Casting defects
Oxide scale - Rolling defects
Oxide scaleon the surface - Rolling defects
Oxide skin - Casting defects
Oxyacetylene Welding - Welding defects
Oxygen pits in section of superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Oxygen pits on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Oxygen pitting on the external surface of fire tube - Corrosion defects
PVC plant-Process pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Panel cracks - Ingot defects
Panelling - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Paper corrosion I - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Paper corrosion II - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Paper mill-pulp transport pipeline-Galvanic corrosion. (Pitting due to contamination with carbon steel particles) - Corrosion defects
Parallel band impression - Cold rolling defects
Parallel grinding cracks - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Part of a thick-walled rupture in a superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Partial smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Partial smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Patch of hard iron oxides on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Patchy/streaky phosphatizing - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pattern error - Casting defects
Pattern mounting error - Casting defects
Peak/raising - Polishing defects
Peaked can - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Peeled chrome - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Peeled chrome - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Peeling - Bearing defects
Peeling - Coating defects
Peeling - Coating defects
Peeling - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Peeling - Paint and coating defects
Peeling chrome - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Peeling occurs near the shoulder of the raceway over the entire circumference - Bearing defects
Peeling problems - Paint defects - Coating defects
Penetration - Casting defects
Penetration - Mould - Casting defects
Perforation in a region of severe metal loss - Corrosion defects
Perforation resulting from corrosion of internal surface - Corrosion defects
Periodic defect (roll mark) - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Peroxide staining from hardener in polyester body filler - Paint defects - Coating defects
Phosphate marks on the cold strip face - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Phosphating layer defects - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pick ups I - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Pick ups II - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Pick-up - Other defects
Pickle patch - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Pickling blisters - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Pickling corrosion - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Pickling pits - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Pickling scratches - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Pillar fractures of pressed-steel cage - Bearing defects
Pimple sequence/pimple chain - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Pimple sequences - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pimples - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Pimples - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Pimples - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pin hole - Slab defects
Pin hole porosity - Casting defects
Pin holes - Rolling defects
Pin holes - Slab defects
Pin holes - Slab defects
Pin-hole - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Pinch - Tandem mill inspection - Rolling defects
Pinch - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Pinch - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Pinch mark - Cold rolling defects
Pinch marks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Pinch marks/folds/stripes - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pinch marks/fold - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Pinch tree - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Pincher - 1.2381 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.2842 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.4016 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.4104 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.4113 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pincher - 1.7076 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pinhole - Casting defects
Pinhole and bubble type defects - Coating defects
Pinhole cratering - Coating defects
Pinholes - Coating defects
Pinholes - Coating defects
Pinholes - Mould - Casting defects
Pinholes - Paint defects - Coating defects
Pinholes - Rolling defects
Pinholes - Substrate preparation - Paint defects - Coating defects
Pinholes caused by too coarse steel resources - Powder coating - Coating defects
Pipe - Ingot defects
Pipe - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Pipe lamination - Rolling defects
Pipe lamination - Rolling defects
Piped rail - Rail defects
Pit - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Pit-shaped rust on rolling contact surface - Bearing defects
Pits on polished face of AISI A2 tool steel mold - Polishing defects
Pits on polished face of AISI A2 tool steel mould - Polishing defects
Pits/voids - Polishing defects
Pitted steel posts refurbished by galvanizing - Coating defects
Pitting - Corrosion defects
Pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Pitting - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Pitting - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Pitting - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Pitting - Pipeline defects
Pitting - Polishing defects
Pitting - Polishing defects
Pitting corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Pitting corrosion - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Pitting from climatic conditions - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Pitting mark - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Pitting occurs on the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Pitting occurs on the rolling element surface - Bearing defects
Pitting on mold cavity - Tool steel defects
Pitting, scoring and galling - Gear defects - Other defects
Plain dents - Pipeline defects
Planet gear snap-ring wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Planet-bearing shaft wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Planner discontinuities - Pipeline defects
Plastic deformation - Bearing defects
Plastic deformation - Bearing defects
Plastic deformation - Bearing defects
Plastic flow - Gear defects - Other defects
Plastic flow - Rail defects
Plastic flow - cold flow - Gear defects - Other defects
Plastic flow – Ridging/grooving - Gear defects - Other defects
Plastic mold die made from AISI S7 tool steel that was found to be cracked before use - Machining defects - Fractography
Plate damage due to corrosion of base material - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Plate stain - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Plate surfaces - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Platformer-Ball valve-Erosion - Corrosion defects
Platformer-Ballast plate-Hot hydrogen attack (decarburization) - Corrosion defects
Platformer-T-piece (3”/4”)-Fatigue - Corrosion defects
Pleats - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Plug gage - Grinding cracks - Tool steels - Fractography - Machining defects
Pneumatic chisel - Tool steels - Fractography
Pneumatic chisel - Tool steels - Fractography
Pneumatic chisels - Tool steels - Fractography
Pneumatic descaling chisel - Tool steels - Fractography
Pneumatic rivet set - Tool steels - Fractography
Pocket pillar fractures from a cast iron machined cage - Bearing defects
Pockmarked contour of economizer tube exposed to condensed sulfuric acid - Corrosion defects
Point surface origin (PSO) spalling - Bearing defects
Point surface origin (PSO) spalling - Bearing defects
Pointed roll scratch - 1.8519 steel - Cold drawing defects
Polishing - Gear defects - Other defects
Polishing defect classification
Polishing drag marks - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Polishing marks - Paint defects - Coating defects
Polishing or light wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Polishing type wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Polymer cage with fracture – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Polzyoa - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Poor (no) chromating - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor adhesion caused by direct heated gas oven - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor base - Ingot defects
Poor bath management - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Poor design - Tool steels - Fractography
Poor design - Tool steels - Fractography
Poor fluidization - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor fluidization - too much powder - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor or partial coverage - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Poor purging - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor purging, afterwards stored wet - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor purging, radiated, KTL-grounded - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor purging, radiated, KTL-grounded and coated - Powder coating - Coating defects
Poor wrap-around - Powder coating - Coating defects
Pores at ingot base - Ingot defects
Porosity (blowhole) - Welding defects
Porosity (pit) - Welding defects
Porosity - Casting defects in the block window I - Casting defects
Porosity - Casting defects in the block window II - Casting defects
Porosity - Forged bar - Forging defects
Porosity - Ingot defects
Porosity - Rolling defects
Porosity - Slab defects
Porosity - Welding defects
Porosity and slag - Welding defects
Porosity shrinkage defect - Casting defects
Porous ingot - Ingot defects
Portion of an AISI A8 ring forging that cracked (arrows) after forging and annealing - Forging defects - Fractography
Possible combinations of mating dimple shapes resulting from different stress states - Fractography
Possible defect types - Pipeline defects
Post hot-dipping treatment - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Poured short - Casting defects
Powder lumping in the box - Powder coating - Coating defects
Powder spitters on the cured powder surface - Powder coating - Coating defects
Power station condenser-Step inside water header-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Power station cooling system-Sieve from steam condenser cooling water system-Crevice corrosion - Corrosion defects
Pre-existing forging lap - Fractography
Pre-material defect , cracks at the billet - 1.6582 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pre-material defect on the billet - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pre-material defect, scabs - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Preboiler and afterboiler erosion - Corrosion defects
Premature flaking occurs axially on the rolling surfaces - Bearing defects
Premature tempering accounted for the cracking during treatment of this ring die - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Pressed in rolling fin - 1.7709 steel - Cold drawing defects
Pressed-steel cage deformation - Bearing defects
Pretreatment-resistant deep-drawing greases - Powder coating - Coating defects
Preventive grinding to limit crack depth - Rail defects
Primary scales due to high temperature - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Primary scales due to poor descaling - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Primitive alternative of an oil separator - Powder coating - Coating defects
Procrastination of the pretreatment media - Powder coating - Coating defects
Procrastination of the pretreatment-media - Powder coating - Coating defects
Product storage tank-Bottom plate-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Product transport system-Pipe-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Production plant-Welded bend in steam coil-Weld decay (intergranular corrosion near the weld) - Corrosion defects
Products in contact - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Progressive pitting - Gear defects - Other defects
Pucker - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Pull tab rivet fracture - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Pull-out of surface - Machining defects
Pump cavitation - Corrosion defects
Pump-roller bearing-False brinelling - Corrosion defects
Punch - Tool steels - Fractography
Punch made of AISI S7 tool steel that cracked during quenching - Heat treatment defects - Fractography
Punch tip - Tool steels - Fractography
Punches - Tool steel defects
Punches, 2 1/4-in,-diam - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Puncture or leak - Pipeline defects
Punctured - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Push-up, clamp-off - Casting defects
Quench crack - Gear defects - Other defects
Quench cracking - Heat treatment defects
Quench cracking - Casting defects
Quench cracks - Heat treatment defects
Quenched from an excessively high temperature - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Quenching crack - Tool steels - Fractography
Quenching crack I - Heat treatment defects
Quenching crack II - Heat treatment defects
Quenching crack III - Heat treatment defects
RIS mark - Rolling defects
RSJ span - Coating defects
Raceway discoloration, melting occurs at ball pitch intervals - Bearing defects
Raceway discoloration, melting occurs at ball pitch intervals - Bearing defects
Raceway is discolored and melted - Bearing defects
Raceway smearing at intervals corresponding to the roller spacing - Bearing defects
Rail batter - Rail defects
Rail corrugation - Rail defects
Rail corrugations - Rail defects
Rail grinding - Rail defects
Rail-ending blade - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Railroad axle - Friction bearing overheat causing LME - Fractography
Rain damage – water spotting - Coating defects
Raised core or mold element cutoff - Casting defects
Raised mold defect - Casting defects
Raised sand - Casting defects
Ramoff, ramaway - Casting defects
Random fracture - Gear defects - Other defects
Rat tail - Casting defects
Rat tail - Casting defects
Rat tail and buckles - Casting defects
Rating chart for the macroscopic evaluation of the corrosive attack - Tool steel defects
Rattails - Casting defects
Re-hardened bearing steel - Bearing defects
Reactor-Nut with bolt-Hydrogen embrittlement - Corrosion defects
Reamer failure - Tool steels - Fractography
Red rust - Paint and coating defects
Red scale - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Refuse incinerator-ERW (electric resistance welded) furnace tube-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Region of caustic gouging along internal surface - Corrosion defects
Regular buckle - Pipeline defects
Reheat cracking - Welding defects
Reinforcement - Welding defects
Relative motion scratches - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Relief - Polishing defects
Relief - Polishing defects
Repair welding of the crack - Pipeline defects
Residual stresses in forging - Forging defects
Residues on aluminum after pretreatment - Powder coating - Coating defects
Resistance welding - Welding defects
Rest of scale after the grinding - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rest of scale after the pickling - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rest of scale on the wire surface - 1.8523 steel - Cold drawing defects
Reverse loading - Bearing defects
Reverse loading - Bearing defects
Reversed bending fatique railroad coupling pins - Fractography
Rhodophycea - Plant - Weed or algae fouling - Coating defects
Rhomboidity - Slab defects
Rib – Roller end scoring - Bearing defects
Ribs (Coating sag) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Ridge-buckle defect - Rolling defects
Ridges - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Ridges - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Ridges - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Ridges and furrows - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Ridging - Gear defects - Other defects
Ridging I - Gear defects - Other defects
Ridging II - Gear defects - Other defects
Rim and web failure - Gear defects - Other defects
Rinse water corrosion - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Rinsing streaks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Rip up caused by poor metal-production - Powder coating - Coating defects
Rippled coating - Coating defects
Rippled coating - Coating defects
Rippled surface - Ingot defects
Rippled surface - Ingot defects
Rippling - Gear defects - Other defects
Rippling - Gear defects - Other defects
Rippling in spiral bevel pinion - Gear defects - Other defects
Risen ingot - Ingot defects
Riser-contact cracks - Casting defects
Rokes - Hot rolling defects
Rokes/seams - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Rokes/seams - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Roll imprints - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Roll imprints - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Roll mark (temper mill) - Heat treatment defects
Roll mark - Cold rolling defects
Roll mark - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Roll mark - Rolling defects
Roll mark - Rolling defects
Roll mark - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Roll mark - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Roll marks - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Roll marks - Hot rolling defects
Roll marks - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Roll scratch - 1.7139 steel - Cold drawing defects
Roll shell - Tool steels - Fractography
Roll stop - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Roll tears - Tool steels - Rolling defects
Roll-in - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Rolled in extraneous material - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Rolled in foreign material - 1.7076 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolled in foreign material - 1.7709 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolled in scale - Cold rolling defects
Rolled-in - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Rolled-in dirt - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Rolled-in extraneous matter - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Rolled-in extraneous matter - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Rolled-in primary scale - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Rolled-in primary scale - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Rolled-in scale - 1.4003 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolled-in scale - 1.7707 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolled-in scale - Hot rolling defects
Rolled-in scrap - Hot rolling defects
Rolled-in secondary scale - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Rolled—in scale of external origin - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Roller end with light polishing - Acceptable - Bearing defects
Roller end with smearing – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Roller imprints - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Roller imprints - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Roller pressing - Slab defects
Roller streaks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Rolling contact fatigue defects - Rail defects
Rolling contact fatigue – Bearings - Bearing defects
Rolling contact fatigue – Gears and cam
Rolling dust - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Rolling fin - 1.2381 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolling fin - 1.6582 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rolling imperfection or angularity - Pipeline defects
Root (wood) - Coating defects
Root concavity - Welding defects
Root concavity - Welding - Coating defects
Root crack I - Gear defects - Other defects
Rotary slitter knife - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Rough casting surface - Casting defects
Rough casting surface/Roughness - Casting defects
Rough casting surface/roughness - Casting defects
Rough coatings - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Rough edges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Rough surface condition - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Rough surface condition - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Rough surface defect - Casting defects
Rough-machined EDM surface - Orvar 2 steel - EDM machining defects
Roughness - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Round shaped peeling pattern occurs on the center of the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Round shaped peeling pattern occurs on the center of the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Round shaped peeling pattern occurs on the center of the rolling surfaces - Bearing defects
Rubber - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Ruck - Pipeline defects
Runner block made from a proprietary hot-work tool steel that was used to die cast aluminum transmission case covers - Fractography
Runout - Casting defects
Runout - Casting defects
Runs - Coating defects
Runs - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Runs - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Runs - Paint defects - Coating defects
Runs or sags - Coating defects
Rupture - Cold rolling defects
Rupture - Pipeline defects
Rupture associated with low-pH gouging. - Corrosion defects
Rupture in an economizer tube caused by severe localized external-surface erosion - Corrosion defects
Rupture marks - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Rupture resulting from hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Ruptured division-wall tube from fluidized-bed boiler - Corrosion defects
Rust - Bearing defects
Rust - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Rust - Cold rolling defects
Rust - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Rust - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Rust - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Rust and coolant stains - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Rust bleeding - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Rust bleeding - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Rust grade 'A', 'B', 'C' (Sa 2) - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust grades 'B", 'C', 'D' (Sa 2) - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust grades 'B', 'C', 'D' (Sa 3) - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust grades 'D', 'B', 'C' (Sa 2 1/2 - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust grades 'b', 'C', 'D' (Sa 1) - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust grades - Dry abrasive blasting - Coating defects
Rust on a stainless steel pipe spool piece - Corrosion defects
Rust on a stainless steel plate - Corrosion defects
Rust on raceway surface at ball pitch - Bearing defects
Rust on raceway surface at roller pitch - Bearing defects
Rust on the rib face and raceway surface - Bearing defects
Rust rashing - Coating defects
Rust rashing - Coating defects
Rust scars - 1.7077 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rust scars and corrosion - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Rust spotting - Coating defects
Rust spotting - Coating defects
Rust staining - Coating defects
Rust staining - Coating defects
Rust streak - Rail defects
S7 angle shear blade - Grinding cracks - Machining defects
SCC failures of ASTM A325 bolts in piscataqua bridge - Fractography
SEM ductile fracture surface - Fractography
SPI mold finishing guide - Polishing defects
SPM_II - Cold rolling defects
Sags - Coating defects
Salt pots - Other defects
Salt spray testing of as-processed black Ni-P - Coating defects
Sand - Hot rolling defects
Sand burning - Casting defects
Sand drop defect - Casting defects
Sand embedded in casting - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Sand embedded in castings - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Sand fur - Casting defects
Sand hole defects - Casting defects
Sand inclusion - Casting defects
Sand inclusion - Casting defects
Sand inclusions - Casting defects
Sand inclusions - Casting defects
Sand inclusions - Casting defects
Sand inclusions - Mould - Casting defects
Sanding marks - Substrate preparation - Paint defects - Coating defects
Sanding marks - Topcoats - Paint defects - Coating defects
Saponification - Coating defects
Scab - Cold rolling defects
Scab - Forging defects
Scab - Ingot defects
Scab I - Rolling defects
Scab II - Rolling defects
Scab on the surface - 1.7034 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scab out of foreign material - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scabbing - Casting defects
Scabbing - Mould - Casting defects
Scabs on the surface - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scabs on the surface - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scabs, expansion scabs - Casting defects
Scale (types C3 and C5) - Rolling defects
Scale - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Scale - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Scale - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Scale - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Scale - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Scale - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Scale - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Scale defects - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Scale on the chrome surface - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Scale pattern - Rolling defects
Scale pits (oit marks) - Forging defects
Scale pits with grain boundary oxidation - 1.4303 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scale pits/scabs - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Scale pits/scabs - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Scale residues - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Scale residues - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Scale scars through too long annealing time - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scale, scratch, planarity - Slab defects
Scales - Rolling defects
Scaling - Casting defects
Scarfing - Slab defects
Scarred surface - Mould - Casting defects
Scattered porosity - Welding defects
Schematic type and location cracks defects, related to continuous casting of steel - Slab defects
Scintillation (splash) - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Scored - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Scoring - Bearing defects
Scoring - Bearing defects
Scoring - Gear defects - Other defects
Scoring and peeling - Bearing defects
Scoring on large rib face of inner ring - Bearing defects
Scoring on roller end face - Bearing defects
Scoring on the face of inner ring rib - Bearing defects
Scoring on the pressedsteel cage pockets - Bearing defects
Scoring on the rib face of inner ring - Bearing defects
Scoring on the roller end face - Bearing defects
Scoring on the roller end face - Bearing defects
Scrap mark - Rolling defects
Scrap-in-die marks - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Scrap-in-die marks I - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Scrap-in-die marks II - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Scratch - Cold rolling defects
Scratch - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Scratch - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Scratch - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Scratch - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Scratch - Tinning - Rolling defects
Scratch after grinding - 1.4104 steel - Cold drawing defects
Scratch from cold rolling mill - Stainless steel defects - Rolling defects
Scratch in cold rolled steel strip - Rolling defects
Scratch marks - Other defects
Scratches - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Scratches - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Scratches - Paint defects - Coating defects
Scratches - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Scratches, grooves and gouges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Scratches, side flow, pile-up, microchips - AISI steel 4340 - Machining defects
Scratches/abrasion marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Scratches/grooves - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Scratching - Gear defects - Other defects
Scuffing (high-speed stage pinion) - Gear defects - Other defects
Scuffing - Bearing defects
Scuffing of gear tooth surfaces - Gear defects - Other defects
Sea water corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sealing layer defects - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Seam - Rolling defects
Seam - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Seam defect (top tube) - Corrosion defects
Seam defect in steam line - Corrosion defects
Seam flaw on the AISI 1040 steel bar - Ingot defects
Seam in a forged pitman in arm - Forging defects
Seam inclusions - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Seams - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Seams - Hot rolling defects
Seams and laps - Welding defects
Seams and slivers - Rolling defects
Seams or scars - Casting defects
Seams or scars - Casting defects
Secondary scales (drag/comet type) from coil box - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Secondary scales due to poor descaling - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Section from a spark-machined surface showing changes in structure - Rigor tool steel - EDM machining defects
Segregation lines and longitudinal corner crack - Slab defects
Segregational streaking - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Seized bearing - Gear defects - Other defects
Seizure - Bearing defects
Semibright hard chromium plate - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Serrated edge - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Settlement - Coating defects
Settlement - Coating defects
Several prominent bulges - Corrosion defects
Severe abrasion - Gear defects - Other defects
Severe fire-side metal loss on waterwall tubes - Corrosion defects
Severe graphitic corrosion of a gray cast iron feedwater-pump impeller - Corrosion defects
Severe roughness, high pressure molding defect - Casting defects
Severe thermal oxidation and spalling of magnetite on external surface - Corrosion defects
Severe wear/fretting – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Sewage treatment plant-Aeration tank distributor pieces-Deposit attack - Corrosion defects
Sewage treatment plant-Worm of worm gear pump-Chloride attack and erosion - Corrosion defects
Shaft fatique failure - Tool steels - Fractography
Shape wave - Heat treatment defects
Sharp buckle - Pipeline defects
Sharp corners - Tool steels - Fractography
Sharp corners - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Sharpened slag line - 1.8519 steel - Cold drawing defects
Shear cracks at a pressed part - 1.5513 steel - Cold drawing defects
Shear knife - Tool steels - Fractography
Sheared edge defects - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Sheared edge defects - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Shearing burrs - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Sheet wrench mark - Heat treatment defects
Shell - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Shell - Continuous annealing line - Rolling defects
Shell - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Shell - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Shell - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Shell - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Shell - Pickling line - Rolling defects
Shell - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Shell - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Shell - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Shell - Wire rod defects - Drawing defects
Shelling - Rail defects
Shelling - Rail defects
Shelling of the running surface - Rail defects
Shelling of the running surface - Rail defects
Shells - Drawing defects
Shells - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Shells - Hot rolling defects
Shells - Ingot defects
Shells - Rail defects
Shells - Slab defects
Shells and scales - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Shells caused by mechanical damage - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) - Welding defects
Shift - Casting defects
Shifted core - Casting defects
Shiny vs. dull - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Shockload failure II - Gear defects - Other defects
Shockload failures I - Gear defects - Other defects
Short pitch corrugations - Rail defects
Short waviness, induced by the rolling process - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Short-pitch rail corrugation - Rail defects
Short-term overheating - Corrosion defects
Shot blast rounded - Casting defects
Shrinkage - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Shrinkage and the macrostructure - Casting defects
Shrinkage cavity defect - Casting defects
Shrinkage depression defect - Casting defects
Shrinkage in spheroidal casting - Casting defects
Shrinkage porosity - Defect characterization - Casting defects
Shrinkage/edge mapping - Paint defects - Coating defects
Si-Mn-Mo tie plates punches - Heat treatment defects
Side seam droop - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Sigma-phase embrittlement of duplex stainless steel weld metal - Fractography
Silicon/red scales (tiger scale) - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Single craters - Bearing defects
Sink mark - Casting defects
Sink marks, draw or suck-in - Casting defects
Sink-roll growth - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Skewed ingot head - Ingot defects
Ski-ends - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Skin holes - Ingot defects
Skin lamination - Rolling defects
Skinning - Coating defects
Skip weld - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Slab corner cracks - Slab defects
Slab edge - Hot strip mill - Rolling defects
Slab images - Slab defects
Slag - Surface conditions - Coating defects
Slag blowhole defect - Casting defects
Slag blowholes - Casting defects
Slag inclusion - Casting defects
Slag inclusion - Stainless steel defects - Rolling defects
Slag inclusion defect - Casting defects
Slag inclusions - Casting defects
Slag inclusions - Mould - Casting defects
Slag inclusions - Welding defects
Slag patches - Ingot defects
Slag under the surface - 1.4105 steel - Cold drawing defects
Slag under the surface - 1.7707 steel - Cold drawing defects
Slag, dross or flux inclusions, ceroxides - Casting defects
Slags and titanium carbides - 1.4872 steel - Cold drawing defects
Slip - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Slip mark - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Slippage tracks - Bearing defects
Sliver - AISI 1050 steel - Slab defects
Sliver - Cold rolling defects
Sliver - Low carbon steel - Rolling defects
Sliver - Rolling defects
Sliver - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Sliver/seams - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Slivers - Rail defects
Slivers and cracks - Drawing defects
Slivers, cracks, blowholes - Wire-rod - Rolling defects
Small and large indentations occur over entire raceway surface - Bearing defects
Small and large indentations occur over the rolling surface - Bearing defects
Smashing through of the scarred surface - Powder coating - Coating defects
Smear streaks - Bearing defects
Smearing - Bearing defects
Smearing - Bearing defects
Smearing - Bearing defects
Smearing - Bearing defects
Smearing in thrust ball bearings - Bearing defects
Smearing occurs at the center of the rolling surface - Bearing defects
Smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Smearing occurs circumferentially on raceway surface - Bearing defects
Smearing of external surfaces - Bearing defects
Smearing of rollers and raceways - Bearing defects
Smearing – Left side of this inner race illustrates smearing, unacceptable - Bearing defects
Snaky coating - Galvanizing - Coating defects
Soda solution transport system-Pipe bend-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sodium hydroxide-rich deposit - Corrosion defects
Soft arcing - ESR ingot defects
Soft or insufficient ramming, mold-wall movement - Casting defects
Soft steel washers - Tool steels - Fractography
Soft vs. hard ductile particles - Contamination - Bearing defects
Solder pellets - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Soldering, die erosion - Casting defects
Solid abrasive was pressed into the surface - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Solvent lifting - Coating defects
Solvent lifting - Coating defects
Solvent pop - Paint defects - Coating defects
Solvent popping - Coating defects
Solvent popping - Coating defects
Some defects of bearing (deformation, crack, scratch, dust) - Bearing defects
Some forging defects - Forging defects
Some slab defects - Slab defects
Soot-blower erosion - Corrosion defects
Spalled corners - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Spalled section of hardened steel roll - Fractography
Spalling - Anodizing defects catalogue - Coating defects
Spalling (thru hardened gear) - Gear defects - Other defects
Spalling - Bearing defects
Spalling - Bearing defects
Spalling - Bearing defects
Spalling - Gear defects - Other defects
Spalling - Hard Cr coating I - Coating defects
Spalling - Hard Cr coating II - Coating defects
Spalling - Hard chrome coatings - Coating defects
Spalling - Rail defects
Spalling - Rail defects
Spalling and exfoliation of magnetite on internal surfaces - Corrosion defects
Spalling of the rail surface - Rail defects
Spalls - Bearing defects
Spatter - Welding - Coating defects
Spatter - Welding defects
Spatter - Welding defects
Spatter - Welding defects
Speckling - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Spike-heading dies - Tool steels - Fractography
Spills - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Spilt steel - Ingot defects
Spinner - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Spinning and deep drawing defects - Other defects
Spiral corrosion - Pipeline defects
Spiral grooves cut into internal surface of flue-gas cooler by erosive gas flow - Corrosion defects
Spiral weld cracking - Pipeline defects
Splash - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Splash - Ingot defects
Spline wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Split ends - Hot rolling defects
Split strip edges - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Split web - Rail defects
Spongy edge - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Spongy surface - Hot rolling defects
Spongy surface - Slab defects
Spongy top - Ingot defects
Spotty chromating - Powder coating - Coating defects
Spreader marks - Heat treatment defects
Sprinkler (extinguisher) system (wet)-Pipe section-Sulphide corrosion - Corrosion defects
Squat - Rail defects
Squat defects - Rail defects
Squats - Rail defects
Squats - Rail defects
Stain - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Stain - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Stain - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Staining - Coating defects
Stainless steel (AISI 304)-Textile steamer-Guide bar in textile conveyor system - Corrosion defects
Stamping ink (untreated) - Powder coating - Coating defects
Star crack - Rolling defects
Star cracks - Slab defects
Star fractures - Slab defects
State of solidification of a small ingot - Ingot defects
Steam condensate system (15 bar)-Condensate pipe-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system (4 bar)-Header from air heater-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system (of 13 bar steam supply)-Horizontal condensate pipe-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Air heater tubes-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Condensate pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Condensate pump impeller-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Element from air heater and steam trap-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Float ball from heat exchanger steam trap-Oxygen attack - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Horizontal condensate pipe and deposits in a condensate pipe-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Pipe of air heater used as steam cooler-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Pipe-Corrosion underneath insulation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Uninsulated pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Uninsulated underground pipeline-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Upper part of horizontal condensate pipe- Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Valve from condensate pipe-Galvanic corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam condensate system-Vertical element from air heater (before and after sawing through)-Carbonic acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam cutting from adjacent tube failures - Corrosion defects
Steam cutting of utility convection tubes - Corrosion defects
Steam pipe-Flange-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Steam system (7 bar)-Steam control valve-Consequence of excessive pick-up of magnetite - Corrosion defects
Steam system (low pressure)-Steam pipe section-Intergranular stress corrosion (caustic embrittlement) - Corrosion defects
Steam system-Bend in steam pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steam system-Valve bolts-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Steaming - Corrosion defects
Steel cage with cracks – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Steel ingots on the thermogram - Ingot defects
Steel pit - Rolling defects
Stepped wear on the outside surface and pocket surface of a machined high-tension brass cage - Bearing defects
Stepped wear on the roller head and face - Bearing defects
Sticker - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Sticker break - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Sticker break - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Sticker breaks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Sticker breaks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Sticking points - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Sticky scale - Rolling defects
Stonechip - Paint defects - Coating defects
Stoppage marks - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Stray arcing - Welding - Coating defects
Streaks and sags - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Strecher-strains in cold formed carbon steel sheet range component - Drawing defects
Stress corrosion crack - Pipeline defects
Stress corrosion cracking - Turbine blade - Fractography
Stress corrosion cracking at a screw - 1.4404 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack - 1.8519 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack after the roll cooling - 1.2550 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack after the rolling - 1.2357 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack at a helical spring - 1.8159 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack at the wire - 1.7707 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack in a nitrided component - 1.8507 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress crack on the rod wire - 1.8523 steel - Cold drawing defects
Stress cracking - Coating defects
Stress cracks and thermal fatigue cracks - Tool steel defects
Stress-corrosion cracking - Corrosion defects
Stretcher - Temper mill - Rolling defects
Stretcher strain - Heat treatment defects
Stretcher strains - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Stretcher strains - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Stretcher strains - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Striations - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Stricker mark - Heat treatment defects
Striped pattern of corrosion occurs on the raceway surface - Bearing defects
Striped pattern of corrosion occurs on the rolling surface - Bearing defects
Striping/banding - Paint defects - Coating defects
Stripper steam system-Distributor pipe-Stress corrosion - Corrosion defects
Stripping defect - Casting defects
Strong corrosion at chain links - 1.4571 steel - Cold drawing defects
Strong grain boundary oxidation - 1.2201 steel - Cold drawing defects
Strong pickling attack - 1.4105 steel - Cold drawing defects
Strong pickling attack with grain boundary attack - 1.4567 steel - Cold drawing defects
Structural scheme of the massive forging ingot - Ingot defects
Structural shear blade - Tool steels - Fractography
Stuff happens - Hard chrome plating - Coating defects
Sub-surface initiated spalling - Bearing defects
Sub-surface shrinkage - Casting defects
Subcutaneous blowholes - Ingot defects
Submerged arc welding - Welding defects
Substrate scratches - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Subsurface fatique - Bearing defects
Subsurface fatique - Bearing defects
Subsurface initiated bending fatigue - Gear defects - Other defects
Subsurface initiated fatigue - Bearing defects
Subsurface initiated fatigue - Bearing defects
Subsurface non-metallic inclusion - Slab defects
Subsurface origin failure - Gear defects - Other defects
Sulfur print - Ingot defects
Sulphidation - Corrosion defects
Sulphur prints - 15 t ingot - Ingot defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Flange in pipe-Erosion corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Main distribution pipe-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Pipe section-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Sulphuric acid transport system-Valve-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Super-large inclusion - Ingot defects
Support roller imprints - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Surface - Ingot defects
Surface porosity - Welding defects
Surface and subsurface defects - Slab defects
Surface appearance of piping porosity - Welding defects
Surface assessment by roughness parameters - Polishing defects
Surface blowholes - Mould - Casting defects
Surface bumps - Gear defects - Other defects
Surface bursts at a tensile test - 1.7131 steel - Cold drawing defects
Surface conditions - Water jetting - Coating defects
Surface contaminant - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Surface cooling cracks - Tool steels - Heat treatment defects
Surface corrosion "rust" - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Surface cracking - Forging defects
Surface cracks - Forging defects
Surface cracks - Forging defects
Surface cracks - Slab defects
Surface cracks at the drawing - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Surface cracks on continuously cast slabs - Austenitic stainless steel - Slab defects
Surface cracks on continuously cast slabs - Slab defects
Surface defect caused by a foreign body - Powder coating - Coating defects
Surface defect types in stainless steel - Rolling defects
Surface defect lack of material - Rolling defects
Surface defects - Causes - Slab defects
Surface defects - Other defects
Surface defects - Rail defects
Surface defects in a strip after hot rolling - Drawing defects
Surface defects in continuously cast products - Slab defects
Surface defects of hot rolled steel plates - Rolling defects
Surface distress - Bearing defects
Surface distress = micro-scale spalling-early stage of surface initiated spalling - Bearing defects
Surface folds, gas runs - Casting defects
Surface gauge corner head cracks - Rail defects
Surface inclusion defects - Rolling defects
Surface initiated spalling - Bearing defects
Surface laps - Rolling defects
Surface marks due to broken rolling stands - Rolling defects
Surface mottling (pits) - Forging defects
Surface near slag - 1.4301 steel - Cold drawing defects
Surface of a hard chrome coating - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Surface or subsurface blowholes - Casting defects
Surface origin failure - Gear defects - Other defects
Surface oxidation - Welding defects
Surface pinholes - Casting defects
Surface porosity - Welding - Coating defects
Surface roughness - Mould - Casting defects
Surface roughness after grinding and after using diamond paste on nylon cloth - Polishing defects
Surface roughness after grinding and polishing - Polishing defects
Surface spalling of the rail surface caused by wheelburn - Rail defects
Surface wrinkle defect of carbon steel - Rolling defects
Swealed - Hot rolling defects
Sweat-cinder not removed - Powder coating - Coating defects
Swelling - Mould - Casting defects
TTC - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Tache ovale defects - Rail defects
Tackiness - Coating defects
Tear-drops - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
Tears or laps - ESR ingot defects
Teeming lap - Ingot defects
Teeming lap - Ingot defects
Tensile fractures begin internally - Fractography
Tension cracks - ESR ingot defects
Tension cracks I - Ingot defects
Tensions cracks II - Ingot defects
Terminology used for planes in rails - Rail defects
Tertiary scales due to roll roughness(salt & pepper/banded type) - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
The defect on the inner race - Bearing defects
The defect on the outer race - Bearing defects
The flange edge of a roll made from AISI D2 tool steel that chipped off during its initial use - Fractography
The formation of grooves and craters due to the passage of electric current - Bearing defects
The internals defects - Pipeline defects
The massive rupture of the wall tube - Corrosion defects
The metal loss, peeling - Pipeline defects
The pipe manufacturing defect - Pipeline defects
The plastic flow due to overheating - Gear defects - Other defects
The reddish color of the iron oxides and the presence of tubercles capping iron oxide-filled pits - Corrosion defects
The redistribution of inclusions - Forging defects
The spalling crater is local! - Bearing defects
The thick-walled rupture - Corrosion defects
Thermal cracking - Bearing defects
Thermal cracks occur at large end face of roller - Bearing defects
Thermal cracks occur on the outer ring side face - Bearing defects
Thermal fatigue - Casting defects
Thermal fatigue cracks in new die steels - Fractography
Thermal oxidation (metal burning) - Corrosion defects
Thermal spray aluminum (99.5 percent) coating - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Thermal stresses aid oxide spalling - Corrosion defects
Thermal-fatigue cracks on internal surface - Corrosion defects
Thermal-induced cracks - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Thermally embrittlement Co-Free Vasco T-250 maraging steel II - Fractography
Thick bright chromium plate - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Thick, irregular mound of hard iron oxides covering perforation - Corrosion defects
Thick-walled burst resulting from hydrogen damage - Corrosion defects
Thick-walled rupture in a reheater tube. Note fissures on external surface aligned with the rupture - Corrosion defects
Thread chaser - Tool steels - Fractography
Thread chaser - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Three piece can bodies - Soldered side seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Three piece can bodies - Welded side seam - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Through-hardened ring gear wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Thumb—nail cracks on the chisel I - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Thumb—nail cracks on the chisel II - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Tight fits - Bearing defects
Tight fits - Bearing defects
Tight fits - Bearing defects
Tip and root interference - Gear defects - Other defects
Titan stripe - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Too thick powder cloud - Powder coating - Coating defects
Tooth bending failure from inclusions - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth breakage - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth fracture (low cycle fatigue) - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth fracture (root fillet fatigue) - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth fracture from bearing failure - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth surface destroyed by extensive pitting I - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth surface destroyed by extensive pitting II - Gear defects - Other defects
Tooth tip chipping - Gear defects - Other defects
Torch heated to bend - Forging defects
Torn at the drawing - 1.4305 steel - Cold drawing defects
Torsion twist failure AISI S7 super-duty dragster axle - Heat treatment defects
Torsional engine vibration could cause worn clutching teeth - Gear defects - Other defects
Torsional fatigue fracture in 51b60 railroad spring - Fractography
Total bearing lockup - Bearing defects
Touch marks - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Touch marks - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Tramlines - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Transfer material - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Transgranular and intergranular crack propagation - Fractography
Transversal cracks - Slab defects
Transversal shell stripes - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Transverse crack - Rolling defects
Transverse crack resulting from caustic stress corrosion in a bent stainless steel superheater tube - Corrosion defects
Transverse crack, star crack - Slab defects
Transverse cracking - Slab defects
Transverse cracks - ESR ingot defects
Transverse cracks - Hot rolled flat steel products - Rolling defects
Transverse cracks - Ingot defects
Transverse cracks - Rolling defects
Transverse cracks - Rolling defects
Transverse cracks - Slab defects
Transverse cracks - Slab defects
Transverse cracks - Slab defects
Transverse cracks and associated oxygen pits - Corrosion defects
Transverse cracks/hanger cracks - Ingot defects
Transverse depression - Slab defects
Transverse depression - Slab defects
Transverse depressions - Slab defects
Transverse fissures at and near stud bases - Corrosion defects
Transverse scoring - Ingot defects
Transverse undulations - Cold rolled uncoated sheet - Rolling defects
Transverse undulations/Chatter marks - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Transverse undulations/chatter marks - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Transversely cracked ingot head - Ingot defects
Trapped casting flux/sand marks - Ingot defects
True brinell (denting) - Bearing defects
True brinelling - Bearing defects
True brinelling - Bearing defects
True brinelling - Bearing defects
True brinelling - Bearing defects
True brinelling - Bearing defects
True vs. false brinelling - Bearing defects
Tube expansion - Pipeline defects
Tube rupture after severe metal loss by chelant corrosion - Corrosion defects
Tube sections virtually plugged with deposits - Corrosion defects
Tubeworms - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Tunicate - Marine fouling - Coating defects
Turned back corner - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Turned back lap - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Two AISI A6 tool steelvparts that shattered during finish (abusive) grinding - Machining defects - Fractography
Two piece can bodies - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Two sharp corners - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Two shear knives made from AISI H13 tool steel - Fractography
Two types of rolling contact fatigue - Bearing defects
Two views of an AISI S1 tool steel cutter die that cracked and spoiled after regrinding - Machining defects - Fractography
Type IV failure in P122 header end cap weld - Other defects
Types of cracks - Welding defects
Typical cracks observed on the rolled blooms - Rolling defects
Typical defects revealed in the forging ingot - Forging defects
Typical examples of broken rails and rail damage - Rail defects
Typical fatigue effect - Bearing defects
Typical forging defects - Forging defects
Typical forging defects I - Forging defects
Typical forging defects II - Forging defects
Typical forging defects III - Forging defects
Typical gear tooth contact patterns and gear tooth failure nomenclature - Gear defects - Other defects
Typical wear damage - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Unacceptable tearing off of material - Bearing defects
Unacceptable weld profiles - Welding defects
Uncoated areas - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Uncoated spot - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Under pickling - Cold rolling defects
Under-austenitization - Heat treatment defects
Undercut - Welding - Coating defects
Undercut - Welding defects
Undercut - Welding defects
Undercut - Welding defects
Undercut - Welding defects
Undercut - Welding defects
Undercuting - Coating defects
Undercutting - Coating defects
Underfill (internal concavity) - Welding defects
Underfill - Welding defects
Underfill - Welding defects
Underfilled - Hot rolling defects
Underfilling - Bearing defects
Undirectional bending fatique in bolt - Fractography
Uneven hardness defect - Casting defects
Uneven surface caused by poor zinc coating - Powder coating - Coating defects
Uneven weld ripples - Welding defects
Uneven-leg fillet weld - Welding defects
Unfavorable design - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
Unintentional carburization - Heat treatment defects
Unintentional carburization - Heat treatment defects
Unsuccessful weld repair of the die - Tool steels - Fractography
Unusual intergranular fracture in Fe-Cr-Al alloy - Fractography
Unworn coatings - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Ureum stripper-Gas pipe-Stress corrosion (transgranular) - Corrosion defects
Utility superheater tube cut by steam leaking from an adjacent tube that failed at a manufacturing defect - Corrosion defects
V-cracks - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
V-shape - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Vacuum evaporation system for milk powder manufacture-Pump impeller-Cavitation - Corrosion defects
Various defects - Machining defects
Vee - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Veining - Casting defects
Veining or finning - Casting defects
Veins defect - Casting defects
Vertical crack - Slab defects
Vertical crack toe of SMAW multi-pass weld - Welding defects
Vertical split head - Rail defects
Vertical split head - Rail defects
Vertical split head - Rail defects
Vertical waste heat boiler of a catalytic cracker-Corrosion defect-Attack due to high alkalinity - Corrosion defects
Vibration I - Gear defects - Other defects
Vibration II - Gear defects - Other defects
Vibration corrosion - false brinelling - Bearing defects
Vibration damage - Bearing defects
Warped casting - Casting defects
Washout/erosion - Casting defects
Waste water pipe-Ball valve ball-Acid corrosion - Corrosion defects
Water contamination - Bearing defects
Water contamination - Bearing defects
Water spotting - Coating defects
Water spotting - Paint defects - Coating defects
Water stains - Bearing defects
Water supply in a cattle shed-Drinking troughs-White rust - Corrosion defects
Water treatment system (ion exchanger)-Drainage pipe-Chloride attack - Corrosion defects
Wavey tooth wear - Gear defects - Other defects
Waviness - Cold rolling defects
Waviness - Polishing defects
Wavy head or tail of a plate - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Wear - Airplane part - Other defects
Wear - Bearing defects
Wear - Bearing defects
Wear - Bearing defects
Wear - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Wear I - Fractography
Wear II - Fractography
Wear caused by abrasive particles - Bearing defects
Wear caused by inadequate lubrication - Bearing defects
Wear caused by vibration - Bearing defects
Wear caused by vibration / false brinelling – Unacceptable - Bearing defects
Wear having a wavy or concave-and-convex texture on loaded side of raceway surface - Bearing defects
Wear of die forging and surface fatigue cracks - Forging defects
Wear pads - Gear defects - Other defects
Wear tracks - Hard Cr coating - Coating defects
Wear tracks - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Wear – Abrasive contamination - Bearing defects
Wear – Acceptable - Bearing defects
Wear – Grooving - Bearing defects
Wear – Pitting and bruising - Bearing defects
Wear – Unacceptable highly polished surface - Bearing defects
Wear – Unacceptable peeling/microspalling - Bearing defects
Weeping weld - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Weld - Electrolytic galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Weld - Stainless steel strip - Rolling defects
Weld defects - Pipeline defects
Weld failure - Rolling defects
Weld joint - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Weld mark - Rolling defects
Weld overlay showing signs of two-body wear - Fractography
Weld spatter - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Weld spatter - Welding defects
Welding - Gear defects - Other defects
Welding - Mast arm - Welding defects
Welding blowout - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Welding blowouts - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Welding repair marks - Casting defects
Welding spatter - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Welding wire annealing system-Wall of annealing furnace-Carburization - Corrosion defects
Wet storage stain - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Wet storage stain - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Wheel burn - Rail defects
Wheel burn defect - Rail defects
Wheel or engine burns - Rail defects
Wheels damaged in transit - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Wheels damaged through improper cleaning - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
Where do cracks occur? and When do cracks occur? - Casting defects
White and dark layers induced by hard turning - Machining defects
White etch areas - TEM I - Bearing defects
White etch areas - TEM II - Bearing defects
White etch cracking - Bearing defects
White layer formed at a hard turned surface of 52100 steel - Machining defects
White rust - Hot dip galvanizing - Coating defects
White rust - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
White rust - Surface defects on hot-dip metal coated steel sheet - Coating defects
White specks defect - Hard chrome coating - Coating defects
White spot - Rolling defects
White wtch area take-Aways - Bearing defects
Wiped - Bearing defects
Wiped - Bearing defects
Worm gear (pitting) - Gear defects - Other defects
Worm wheel tooth fracture - Gear defects - Other defects
Worn gear locks on the clutch gear can lead to gear jumping - Gear defects - Other defects
Worn low rail profile - Rail defects
Worn shaft gearlocks can lead to gear jumping. - Gear defects - Other defects
Wrinkle - Pipeline defects
Wrinkled curl - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Wrinkled flange - Metal can defects - Coating defects
Wrinkling - Coating defects
Wrinkling - Coating defects
Wrinkling, rippling, lifting - Paint defects - Coating defects
Wrong haredening media - Tool steels - Fractography - Heat treatment defects
X-60 line pipe - Pipeline defects - Fractography
YAG laser scribed identification marks - Machining defects
Yellowing in the interior caused by UV-light - Powder coating - Coating defects
Z-cracking - Heavy plate defects - Rolling defects
Zebra pattern mark - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Zero-defect-strategy in the cold rolling industry - Rolling defects
Zig Zag wraping - Hot rolled products - Rolling defects
Zinc TSMC, chamfered edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Zinc TSMC, flat edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Zinc TSMC, rounded edge - Thermally sprayed metal coatings - Coating defects
Zinc carbonates - Coating defects
Zinc dendrites - Surface defects on electrolytically coated steel sheet - Coating defects
Zinc pot fault - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Zinc skimmings - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Zinc splash - Hot-dip galvanizing line - Rolling defects
Zinc splatter - Hot-dip galvanized coating - Coating defects
Zn coating I - Coating defects
Zn coating II - Coating defects

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