Macro Etchants

18/8 Stainless steel specimens-Etching to reveal ingot structure
18/8 stainless steel-To distinguish between austenite and ferrite
49% Co-49% Fe-V alloy, Stellites
Adler's etch
Al alloy forgings
Al alloys - Poulton's etch
Al alloys (except high Si-castings) - Dilute Tucker's etch
Al alloys
Al alloys
Al alloys
Al alloys
Al alloys
Al and Al alloys - Caustic etch
Al and Al alloys - Concentrated Keller's etch
Al and Al alloys - Tucker's etch
Al and Al alloys
Al and Al alloys
Al and Al alloys
Al, Al-Cu alloys, Al-Si alloys
Al-3% Ag alloy, Al alloys - Modified Tucker's etch
Al-Cu alloy (2% Cu)-Chemical etching
Al-Cu alloys
Al-Cu alloys
Al-Cu-Mg castings
Al-Cu-Mg-Ni alloys - Zeerleder's etch
Al-Cu-Si alloys - Conc. Keller's etch
All Mg alloys
All unalloyed amd low alloy steels, microalloy steels, manganese steels, welds-Chemical etching
Alloy steels - Dilute aqua regia
Alloys with low Sn content. High Cu containing alloys-Chemical etching
Al-Mg, Al-Cu-Mg alloys
Al-Mn alloys
Alpha-beta alloys
AlSb wafers-Chemical etching
Al-Si alloys - Hume-Rothery etch
Al-Si alloys
Aluminium alloys-Al-Cu-Mg-Zn Alloys, 7xxx series and casting alloys
Aluminium alloys-Al-Si alloys
Aluminium alloys-Commercial-purity alloys 1xxx series, Al-Mn alloys, Al-Si alloys, Al-Mg-Si alloys
Aluminium alloys-High purity Al, commercial purity Al, Al-Mn alloys, Al-Si alloys, Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg-Si alloys
Aluminium alloys-High purity aluminium
Aluminium and aluminium alloys-General macro and for revealing shrinkage, cracks, oxides
Aluminium and aluminium alloys-Macro of pure aluminium
Aluminium and aluminium alloys-To reveal grain structure and flow lines in forgings
Aluminium and aluminium alloys-To reveal grain structure. For Al-Si Alloys, castings
Aluminium and its alloys-For 2xxx Al alloys, high Cu aloys
Aluminium and its alloys-For 3xxx, 4xxx, 5xxx, 6xxx Al alloys and high Si castings
Aluminium and its alloys-For Al alloys except high Si castings
Aluminium and its alloys-For high purity Al, 1xxx, 3xxx, 4xxx, 5xxx, 6 xxx Al alloys
Aluminium and its alloys-Good general purpose etchant
Aluminium specimens-Al alloys containing Cu, Mn, Si and Ti. Al cast alloys with high Si content
Aluminium specimens-Al base matrials in general
Aluminium specimens-Chemical etching
Aluminium specimens-High purity Al, Mn-Al, Si-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Si-Al alloys
Aluminium specimens-Pure Al, Cu-Al alloys
Aluminium specimens-Surface imperfections of pure Al
Aluminium, low alloy content specimens-Chemical etching
Aluminium-Al
Aluminium-Al
Aluminium-Al
Aluminum bronze-Electrolytic etching
Aluminum weldments-For macroetching
Antimony specimens-Crystal arrangement. Casting imperfection in Sb and Bi
Antimony specimens-Sb-Pb, Bi-Sn alloys
Antimony specimens-Technically pure Sb. Crystal arrangement. Sb-Bi alloys
Au, Pt alloys, Pd alloys
Austenitic stainless steels - Marbles reagent
Austenitic stainless steels, Ni-based alloys - Lepito's No. 1
Austenitic stainless steels
Austenitic stainless steels
AZ21, AZ31 alloys
AZ31B, AZ61A, AZ80A alloys
AZ61A, AZ80A alloys
B single crystal ingot
Baumann's print
Beryllium and its alloys-Alternative when etchant (10 ml HCl, 4 g NH4Cl, 90 ml H2O) not work
Beryllium and its alloys-Works best on coarse grained Be
Beryllium specimens-Chemical etching
Beryllium specimens-Grain boundary etch
Beryllium specimens-Technical types of Be. Especially with large grain siz
Beryllium specimens-Technical types of Be
Beryllium-Be
Beryllium-Be
Beryllium-Be
Bismuth specimens-Chemical etching
Bismuth specimens-Sb-Bi alloys
Bismuth specimens-Sb-Pb, Bi-Sn alloys
Bismuth-Bi and Antimony-Sb
Bi-Sn alloys, Sb-Pb alloys
Brass containing beta phase
Brass
Brass
Bronze artifact-Chemical etching
Canfield's etch
Carbon and alloy steel specimens- For sulfide and oxide inclusions
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Carbon segregation
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Carburization and decarburization
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Dendritic structure of cast steel specimens
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Dendritic structure of cast steel specimens
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Grain size, weld examination
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Phosphorus rich areas, banding
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks, inclusions, dendrites
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens-Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Cartridge brass
Cast iron
Chromium specimens-Chemical etching
Chromium specimens-Chemical etching
Chromium-Cr
Co and Co alloys
Co and Co alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-2V-Permendur, some Stellites. Shows general structure and porosity
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Chemical etching
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Chemical etching
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Co, Ni and Fe base high temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-HA 36 alloy. Shows grain size and general structure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-High temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-High temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-HS-31, HA-151 and N-155 alloys. Shows grain size and general structure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Kovar (17Co-29Ni, balance Fe) cemented carbides matrix
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-NASA SP alloy (38Ni-37.4Co-14W)
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Nimonic 90 and 100, Ni-Cr-Co, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Refractaloy, K-42-B, some Stellites
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Refractaloys (20-30 Co-Fe base alloys)
Cobalt and cobalt alloys-Wrought Cr-Co-X alloys
Cobalt and its alloys-Co alloys, stellites. General structure, porosity
Cobalt and its alloys-Stellite 31, 151, Inco 713 C, GMR 235, Ni 155
Cobalt and its alloys-Stellite 36 (Co)
Cobalt specimens-Co-25Cr-10Ni-8W, Co-21Cr-20Ni, and Co-3Cr-3Mo-1Nb alloys, other stellites
Cobalt specimens-Co-Cr alloys, also Stellite
Cobalt specimens-Co-Ni-Fe base alloys
Comstock's etch
Copper and copper alloys-All brasses. produce brilliant, deep etch
Copper and copper alloys-All Copper and copper alloy
Copper and copper alloys-Alpha anbd alpha + beta alloys
Copper and copper alloys-Brass. General macro
Copper and copper alloys-Coppers and all brasses. Grains; cracks and other defects, reveal grain contrast
Copper and copper alloys-Coppers and all brasses. Grains; cracks and other defects
Copper and copper alloys-Coppers, all brasses, aluminium bronze
Copper and copper alloys-Coppers, high Cu alloys, phosphor bronze. Grain boundaries, oxide inclusions
Copper and copper alloys-For revealing the general macro-structure
Copper and copper alloys-Silicon brass, silicon bronze. General macrostructure
Copper and copper alloys-Suitable for revealing differences in alloy concentration
Copper and copper alloys-To reveal susceptibility to stress corrosion
Copper and its alloys-Brass. Strain lines
Copper and its alloys-Brilliant deep etch
Copper and its alloys-Cu and all brasses. Emphasizes grains and cracks
Copper and its alloys-Cu and all brasses. Good grain contrast
Copper and its alloys-Cu and all brasses
Copper and its alloys-Cu, high Cu alloys, P-Sn bronzes. Emphasizes grain boundaries and oxide inclusions
Copper and its alloys-Silicon brass or bronze
Copper plating
Copper samples-Brasses containing Si. Si bronzes
Copper samples-Cu and all types of brasses. Grain contrast
Copper samples-Cu and all types of brasses. Grains and cracks
Copper samples-Cu and brasses. Grain contrast
Copper samples-Verification of stresses in brass
Cr plating
Cr-Ni-Fe alloys-Etching of weld structures
Cu and brass
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu and Cu alloys
Cu brass
Cu specimens and copper alloys-Chemical etching
Cu specimens and copper alloys-Chemical etching
Cu, brass
Cu, Cu-Al alloys, brass
Cu, high Cu alloys, phosphor bronze
Cu-Ni-Sn alloy-Cu-15Ni-8Sn
DeSy's etch
Dickenson's etch
Electroless copper plating 1
Electroless nickel 1 plating
Electroless nickel 2 plating
Electroless silver plating
Electrolytic cobalt plating
Electrolytic iron plating 1
Electrolytic iron plating 2
Electrolytic nickel plating
Fe and most steels - Watertoen Arsenal etch
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe and most steels
Fe as grey iron specimens-Chemical etching
Fe specimens-Chemical etching
Fe thin films deposited by MBE on GaAs, (110) wafer-Polishing
Fe, low-alloy steels
Fe, low-alloy steels
Fe, most steels, stainless steels - Vilella reagent
Fe-3.25% Si alloy
Fe3C steel specimens and iron specimens-Chemical etching
Fe-Ni and Fe-Co magnetic alloys-Chemical etching
Flick's Etch
Flinn's etch
Fry's No. 1 etch
Fry's No. 2 etch
Fry's No. 4 etch
Fry's reagent (1)
Ge (111) wafer and spherical shot-Chemical etching
Ge, Si-B-P alloys-Chemical etching
Gold specimens-Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys
Gold specimens-Grain contrast
Griffis and Spretnak's etch
HA-36 (Co alloy)
Hafnium and alloys-Chemical etching
Hafnium and its alloys-Zircalloy-2
Hafnium specimens-Zicaloy-2 and Hf
Hafnium specimens-Zr and Hf and their alloys with small additional constituents
Hafnium specimens-Zr anf Hf and their alloys
Heyn's etch
High alloy steel specimens-Etching to reveal segregations
High Ni-alloys
High speed steels
High speed steels
High-alloy steels, stainless steels
High-alloy steels
High-alloy steels
High-alloy steels
High-purity Al, Al-Mg alloys
High-purity Al
HS-31, HA-151, N-155 (Co alloys)
Inconel 625
Inconel 625
Iodide Ti
Iron and steel specimens-Austenitic stainless steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-lain and alloy steel specimens, high speed steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Mild steel specimens, Bessemer and high N2 steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Plain and alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Plain and alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Plain and low alloy steel specimens. For grain size and weldments
Iron and steel specimens-Stainless and high Cr steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Stainless steel specimens, high alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens-Works well on 12% Cr steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Austenite and high temperature steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Blowhole segregation. Primary structure. Fiber orientation
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Flow lines in low carbon N2 steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Phosphorus distribution in cat steel specimens and cast iron
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Phosphorus segregation in Low carbon steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Verification, arrangemnet, and distribution of Fe and Mn sulfide inclusions
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Versatile etchant for alloyed and unalloyed steel specimen
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons-Versatile, useful for Fe and steel specimens
Jin's etch
Jodid (high-purity, iodide-process) Ti-Chemical etching
Lead (Pb)
Lead (Pb)
Lead and its alloys-Antimonial lead. Bright etch, grain structure
Lead and its alloys-Antimonial lead. Chemical polish-etch
Lead and its alloys-Antimonial lead. For grain structure
Lead and its alloys-Antimonial lead
Lead and its alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Chemical etching
Lead and lead alloys-Development of microstructures and grain boundaries in lead
Lead and lead alloys-Pb-Sb alloys
Lead samples-Grain contrast. Pb containing Sb
Lead samples-Grain contrast. Welded seams. Layers
Lead samples-Removal of deformed layers. Pure and low alloy Pb
LeChatelier's No. 1 etch
LeChatelier's No. 2 etch
Low Ni alloys
Magnesium alloys-Chemical etching
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ21 and AZ31 alloys. Grain size
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ31B alloy. Flow pattern in forgings. Internal defects in cast slabs and ingots
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ31B alloy. General etch for defects in sand and die castings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ31B alloy. Germination on sand cast surfaces
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ31B, AZ61A , AZ80A alloys. Flow pattern in forgings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ61A and AZ80A alloys. Grain size and flow pattern
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-AZ61A and AZ80A alloys. Grain size, surface castings defects
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-Segregation of intermetallic compounds and associated cracks
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-ZK60A alloy. Flow lines in forgings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys-ZK60A alloys. Flow pattern and grain size
Magnesium specimens-Grain sizes and flow lines in cast and forged parts
Magnesium specimens-Internal defects in cast ingots. Segregations, flow lines in forged parts
Magnesium specimens-Internal defects in cast ingots
Maraging steel
Maraging steel
Marts and Capes's etch
Meyer and Eichholz's No. 1 etch
Meyer and Eichholz's No. 2 etch
Mg alloys
Mg alloys
Mg alloys
Mg alloys
Mg alloys
Mg alloys
Mg and Mg alloys
Mg and Mg alloys-Chemical etching
Mg and Mg alloys-Chemical etching
Mg and Mg alloys-Mg-Mn alloys, forgings, Mg-Zr alloys, castings
Mg and Mg alloys-Reveals grain structure and flow lines in forgings
Mg and Mg alloys-Reveals grain structure in heat treated castings and flow lines in forgings
Mg and Mg alloys-Reveals grain structure in heat treated castings and flow lines in forgings
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys (C-Alloy) - Glycol etch
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys (C-Alloy)
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys
Mo, W, V, Nb and Ta
Mo, W, V
Molybdenum samples-Mo, W and V
Molybdenum samples-Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Ni alloys - Adler's etch
Ni alloys - Agua regia
Ni alloys - Lepito's No. I etch
Ni alloys - Modified Marble's reagent
Ni and its alloys-Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements. Etchant for nickel welds
Ni and its alloys-Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements. Grain structure
Ni and its alloys-Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements
Ni and its alloys-Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements
Ni and its alloys-High Ni alloys. Porosity and flowlines
Ni and its alloys-Low Ni alloys. Grain structure
Ni and its alloys-Nickel. For grain structure
Ni and Ni alloys
Ni and Ni alloys
Ni-alloys
Ni-base foundary alloys-Chemical etching
Ni-based superalloys - 'Heppenstall' etch
Ni-based superalloys, Mar-M200, Udimet-700
Ni-based superalloys
Nickel (Ni) - Marble's reagent
Nickel and nickel alloys-For revealing cracks, porosity m dendritic patterns in cast alloys
Nickel and nickel alloys-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Fe alloys
Nickel and nickel alloys-Reveals cracks, porosity, etc.
Nickel base superalloy GTD111-Chemical etching
Nickel specimens-High alloy Ni. Ni-Cu alloy (Monel), Ni-Al, Ni-Fe alloys. Porosity. Flow lines
Nickel specimens-Inconel type alloys on Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe-Cr basis
Nickel specimens-Low alloy Ni. Cracks. Porosity
Nickel specimens-Ni and Ni base alloys. Bi-Cu alloys. Ni-Cr-Fe alloys
Nickel specimens-Superalloys
Nickel superalloys-Chemical etching
Nickel superalloys-Chemical etching
Nickel superalloys-Grain size and texture are well revealed. Freckles are less easily seen
Nickel superalloys-Macrostructure clearly revealed
Ni-Cr-Fe alloys - Lepito's No. II etch
Nimonic alloys-Macro defects in the Nimonic alloys
Nimonic alloys-Macro defects in the Nimonic alloys
Nimonic, Ni-Cr-Co alloys, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys
Nimonic, Ni-Cr-Co alloys, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys
Niobium specimens-Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Nitrided DIN 1.8550(34CrAlNi7) steel specimens-Macro for segregation
Nitrided steels
Nitriding steels
Nitroalloy
Oberhoffer's etch
Oberhoffer's macroetch reagent-For macro etching of steel specimens
OSD alloy MA956-Fe-20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Ti-0.5Y2O3
Osmium and alloys-Grain contrast
Osmium and alloys-Grain contrast
Osmium samples-Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys
Palladium alloys-Grain contrast
Palladium specimen-Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys
Palmerton's etchant 1
Pb alloys-Chemical etching
Pb and most alloys
Pb and most Pb alloys
Pb and Pb alloys
Pb and Pb alloys
Pb-As-Sn-Bi alloys, grain-contrast etchant-Chemical etching
Pb-As-Sn-Bi alloys
Pb-Sb alloys - Russell's reagent
Pb-Sb alloys - Voce's reagent
Pb-Sb alloys - Worner and Worner's reagent
Pb-Sb alloys, grain boundary etchant-Chemical etching
Pb-Sb alloys, grain-contrast etchant-Chemical etching
Pb-Sb alloys, grain-contrast etchant-Chemical etching
Pb-Sb alloys
Pb-Sb-Cu alloys, grain-contrast etchant-Chemical etching
Pb-Sb-Cu alloys
Phenol formaldehyde
Platinium alloys-Grain contrast
Platinum specimens-Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys
Platinum specimens-Pt and Pt alloys
Poulton's reagent
Pt and alloys-Grain contrast
Pt and Pt alloys
Pt and Pt alloys-Electrolytic etching
Pure Al
Pure Be, fine grained Be, single crystals-Chemical etching
Pure Ge and Ge alloys-Chemical etching
Pure Sb alloys, Sb-Bi alloys
Pure Sn-Chemical etching
Pure Sn-Chemical etching
Pure Ti, Ti-base alloys, Ti-Al-Mo alloys-Chemical etching
Pure U and most U alloys-Electrolytic etching
Pure U and U alloys-Chemical etching
Red brass specimens-Chemical etching
Refractory metals (Mo, W, V)-Chemical etching
Refractory metals (Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta)-Chemical etching
Refractory metals (W, V, Nb, Ta)-Chemical etching
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-BLASIL-PS
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-citric acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-Cyanide solution
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-ENDOX 114 (cyanide free)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-ENDOX 214 (containing cyanide)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-Hydrobromic acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-inhibited chloric acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-Molten NaOH
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-TICKOPUR J80 U
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-TICKOPUR R27
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-TICKOPUR R30
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-TICKOPUR RW 77
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface-TRINOFORM FE 645
Rhodium and alloys-Grain contrast
Rhodium and alloys-Grain contrast
Rhodium specimens-Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys
Rosenhain and Haighton's etch
Ru, Os, Rh and alloys
Ru, Os, Rh, Os and Rh alloys
Ruthenium and alloys-Grain contrast
Ruthenium and alloys-Grain contrast
Ruthenium samples-Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys
Schrader's etch
Si brass, bronze
Si-B-P alloys
Si-B-P alloys
Silver specimens-Grain contrast etching
Silver specimens-Grain contrast
Silver-Ag
Silver-pure Ag, grain-contrast etching
Sn alloys
Sn, Sn-Sb amd Sn-Sb-Pb alloys
Sn-Pb alloys (0.5% Pb)-Chemical etching
Sn-Pb alloys
Sn-Pb alloys
Sn-Pb alloys-Chemical etching
Sn-rich bearing and thin plate-Chemical etching
Sn-Sb-Cu alloys, Al-Sn materials, high Sn-containing alloys-Chemical polishing
Sn-Sb-Cu alloys, Sn-Sb-Cu-Pb-Ni alloys
Sn-Sb-Pb alloys
Stainless and heat resistant steel specimens-General macro
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Austenitic stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Austenitic stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Austenitic stainless steel specimens and Ni base alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Iron, Co and Ni base high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens-Stainless steel specimens and iron base high temperature alloys
Stainless steel specimens-Etching to reveal segregations, porosity, cracks
Stainless steels
Stead No. 1 etch
Stead's No. 2 etch
Steel specimens and cast irons-Chemical etching
Steel specimens and cast irons-Etching to reveal sgregations (especially phosphorus segregations)
Steel specimens and cast irons-General mcroecthing of steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons-General mcroecthing of steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons-General mcroecthing steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons-The etching solutions reveals phosphorus segregations
Steel specimens and cast irons-To reveal phosphorus segregations and cell structures in cast iron
Steel specimens and cast irons-To reveal strain lines (stretcher's, Luder's lines)
Steel specimens and cast iron-To reveal phosphorus segregations in carbon steel specimens with up to 0.7% C
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Grain surfaces, background dendrites
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Primary structure (grain surfaces clearly visible). X20Cr13 steel specimens
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Primary structure. 15Cr3 steel specimens
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Primary structure. 5Si13 steel specimens
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Primary structure. St38 steel specimens
Steel specimens-Cast materials. Primary structure
Steel specimens-Chemical etching
Steel specimens-Determination of sulpur distribution
Steel specimens-Roolled materials. Structure visible, defects partly visible. 9S20 steel specimens
Steel specimens-To reveal flow lines
Steels
Tantalum specimens-Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Taub's etch
TD-nickel, TD-NiCrAl, Inconel, MA-754
Ti alloys, idendification of alpha and beta Ti-Chemical etching
Ti alloys, Ti-7% Mn alloy
Ti alloys, Ti-Al-Mn alloys, flow lines, banded structure-Chemical etching
Ti alloys
Ti alloys
Ti alloys
Ti alloys
Ti-3% Al alloy, Ti-13% V-11% Cr-3% Al alloy, Ti-6% Al-4% V alloy
Ti-4% Al-4% Mn alloy
Ti-4% Al-4% Mn alloy
Ti-5% Al-2.5% Sn alloy
Ti-6% Al-4% V alloy, Ti-5% Al-2.75% Cr-1.25% Fe alloy, Ti-2.55% Al-3.75% Mn alloy
Ti-7% Al-4% Mo alloy
Ti-Al-Mn alloys, flow lines-Chemical etching
Ti-Al-Mn, Ti-Al-V, and Ti-Al-Cr-Fe alloys, flow lines-Chemical etching
Tin and its alloys-Grain structure
Tin specimens-Chemical etching
Tin specimens-For all types of Sn and Sn base alloys. Grain distribution
Tin specimens-Sn rich bearing metals and white metals
Tin-Sn
Tin-Sn
Titanium alloys, welds-Chemical etching
Titanium and its alloys-Al-4Mo alloys
Titanium and its alloys-Chemical etching
Titanium and its alloys-Ti alloys. De-smut Ti, -13 V, -11Cr, -3Al alloys
Titanium specimens-Differentiation of alpha and beta Ti
Titanium specimens-Iodide Ti
Titanium specimens-Ti and Ti base alloys. Ti-Al-Mo alloys
Titanium specimens-Welded seams
Tungsten samples-Mo, W and V
Tungsten samples-Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Uranium specimens-U and most U alloys
Uranium specimens-U and U alloys
Vanadium samples-Chemical etching
Vanadium samples-Mo, W and V
Very pure Al
Villela and Beregekoff's etchant
Vitallium alloy-Vitallium is a pure cobalt chromium alloy free of nickel and beryllium
W, V, Nb, Ta
Warke amd McCall's etch
Wazau's etch
Whiteley's etch
Y single crystal specimens-Chemical etching
Y3Fe5O12 (0001) (YIG) wafers-Chemical etching
Zinc and its alloys-Cu free zinc alloys. Grain contrast
Zinc and its alloys-Zn alloys containing Cu. Grain structure
Zinc and zinc alloys-For general macroetching
Zinc specimens-Pure Zn. Zn alloys with Cu. Cast materials
Zinc specimens-Zn alloys containing Cu
Zircalloy-2, Hf
Zirconium and alloys-Chemical etching
Zirconium specimens-Zicaloy-2 and Hf
Zirconium specimens-Zr and Hf and their alloys with small additional constituents
Zirconium specimens-Zr anf Hf and their alloys with high additional alloying constituents
ZK60A alloy
ZK60A alloy
Zn alloys (Cu-free)
Zn alloys (with Cu) - Palmerton etch
Zn and Zn alloys
Zn-base alloys-Chemical etching
Zn-rich alloys
Zr polycrystalline blanks-Chemical etching
Zr, Hf, high Zr alloys, high-Hf alloys
Zr, Hf, low-Zr alloys, low-Hf alloys

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