Macro Etchants

1 + 2 Tucker’s etchant - All except high Si castings - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
1.5Sn-0.15Fe-0.10Cr, and Hf alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
18/8 Stainless steel specimens - Etching to reveal ingot structure
18/8 stainless steel - To distinguish between austenite and ferrite
18Cr-10Ni-14W alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
25Cr-10Ni-8W, 21Cr-20Ni-3W-3Mo-1Cb alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
3XXX, 4XXX, 5XXX, 6XXX, high Si castings - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
49% Co-49% Fe-V alloy, Stellites - General macrostructure
49Co-49Fe-V alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
7A1-4Mo alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AI-7 etchant - For macro etching ferrous cast alloys - Chemical etching
AZ21, AZ31 alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ21, AZ31 alloys - General macrostructure
AZ31B alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ31B alloy I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ31B alloy II - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ31B alloy III - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ31B, AZ61A, AZ80A alloys - General macrostructure
AZ61A alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ61A alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ61A, AZ80A alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ61A, AZ80A alloys - General macrostructure
AZ80A alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
AZ80A alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Adler's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Adler's etchant - Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Adler's etchant - Ni-base foundary alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Adler's etchant - Welded steel - Chemical etching
Agua regia - Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Al alloy forgings - General macrostructure
Al alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Al alloys - Chemical etching
Al alloys - Chemical etching
Al alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Al alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Al and Al alloys - Chemical etching
Al and Al alloys - Chemical etching
Al and Al alloys - General macrostructure
Al-Cu alloy (2% Cu) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Al-Cu alloys - Chemical etching
Al-Cu alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Al-Cu-Mg castings - General macrostructure
Al-Mg, Al-Cu-Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Al-Mn alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure - General macrostructure
AlSb wafers - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Alcoholic ferric chloride etchant - Cu and Cu alloys
All Al alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
All Cu alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
All Mg alloys - General macrostructure
All unalloyed amd low alloy steels, microalloy steels, manganese steels, welds - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Alloys containing Cr, Fe, and other elements I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Alloys containing Cr, Fe, and other elements III - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Alloys containing Cr, Fe, and other elements IV - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Alloys with low Sn content - High Cu containing alloys - Chemical etching
Alpha-beta alloys - General macrostructure
Aluminium - Al alloys containing Cu, Mn, Si and Ti. Al cast alloys with high Si content - General macrostructure
Aluminium - Al base matrials in general- General macrostructure
Aluminium - Chemical etching
Aluminium - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Aluminium - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Aluminium - General macrostructure
Aluminium - High purity Al, Mn-Al, Si-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Si-Al alloys - General macrostructure
Aluminium - Surface imperfections of pure Al - General macrostructure
Aluminium 5052 alloy - Al-2.3Mg-0.2Fe-0.2Cr-0.1Si
Aluminium alloys - Al-Cu-Mg-Zn Alloys, 7xxx series and casting alloys
Aluminium alloys - Al-Si alloys
Aluminium alloys - High purity aluminium
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - General macro and for revealing shrinkage, cracks, oxides
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Macro of pure aluminium
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - To reveal grain structure - For Al-Si Alloys, castings
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - To reveal grain structure and flow lines in forgings
Aluminium and its alloys - For 3xxx, 4xxx, 5xxx, 6xxx Al alloys and high Si castings
Aluminium and its alloys - Good general purpose etchant
Aluminium, low alloy content specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Aluminum bronze - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Aluminum weldments - For macroetching
Anodic treatment - Al and Al alloys
Antimonial lead I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Antimonial lead II - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Antimonial lead III - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Antimonial lead IV - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Antimony - Sb-Pb, Bi-Sn alloys - General microstructure
Antimony specimens - Crystal arrangement - Casting imperfection in Sb and Bi
Antimony specimens - Technically pure Sb
Aqua regia - Ni and Ni alloys
Aqua regia, dilute - Alloy steels - General macrostructure
Aqua regia, dilute - High speed steels - General microstructure
Au, Pt alloys, Pd alloys - General macrostructure
Austenitic SS - Chemical etching
Austenitic stainless steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Austenitic stainless steels - General macrostructure
Austenitic stainless steels - General microstructure
Austenitic stainless steels and high-temperature alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
B single crystal ingot
Baumann print - Sulfur print, unalloyed steels, sulfide inclusions
Beraha`s lead sulfide tint etchant - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Beryllium - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Beryllium - General macrostructure
Beryllium - General macrostructure
Beryllium - General macrostructure
Beryllium - Grain boundary etch
Beryllium - Technical types of Be - Especially with large grain siz
Beryllium - Technical types of Be - General macrostructure
Beryllium and Be alloys I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Beryllium and Be alloys II - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Beryllium and its alloys - Alternative when etchant (10 ml HCl, 4 g NH4Cl, 90 ml H2O) not work
Beryllium and its alloys - Works best on coarse grained Be
Bi-Sn alloys, Sb-Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Bish's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Bismuth - Chemical etching - Crystal arrangement
Bismuth - Sb-Bi alloys - General macrostructure
Bismuth - Sb-Pb, Bi-Sn alloys - General macrostructure
Bismuth and Antimony - General macrostructure
Brass - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Brass - General macrostructure
Brass - General macrostructure
Brass containing beta phase
Bronze artifact - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Canfield's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - For sulfide and oxide inclusions
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Carbon segregation
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Carburization and decarburization
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Dendritic structure of cast steel specimens
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Dendritic structure of cast steel specimens
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Grain size, weld examination
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Phosphorus rich areas, banding
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks
Carbon and alloy steel specimens - Segregation, porosity, hardness penetration, cracks, inclusions, dendrites
Cartridge brass - General macrostructure
Cast iron - General macrostructure
Cast irons - Reveals carbide and phosphide distribution
Caustic etchant - Al and Al alloys - General macrostructure
Chromium - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Chromium - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Chromium - General macrostructure
Co and Co alloys - General macrostructure
Co and Co alloys - General macrostructure
Cobalt - Co-25Cr-10Ni-8W, Co-21Cr-20Ni, and Co-3Cr-3Mo-1Nb alloys, other stellites - General macrostructure
Cobalt - Co-Cr alloys, also Stellite - General macrostructure
Cobalt - Co-Ni-Fe base alloys - General macrostructure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - 2V-Permendur, some Stellites - Shows general structure and porosity
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Co, Ni and Fe base high temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - HA 36 alloy - Shows grain size and general structure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - HS-31, HA-151 and N-155 alloys - Shows grain size and general structure
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - High temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - High temperature alloys
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Kovar (17Co-29Ni, balance Fe) cemented carbides matrix
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - NASA SP alloy (38Ni-37.4Co-14W)
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Nimonic 90 and 100, Ni-Cr-Co, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Refractaloy, K-42-B, some Stellites
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Refractaloys (20-30 Co-Fe base alloys)
Cobalt and cobalt alloys - Wrought Cr-Co-X alloys
Cobalt and its alloys - Co alloys, stellites - General structure, porosity
Cobalt and its alloys - Stellite 31, 151, Inco 713 C, GMR 235, Ni 155
Cobalt and its alloys - Stellite 36 (Co)
Comstock's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Copper - Brasses containing Si, Si bronzes - General macrostructure
Copper - Cu and all types of brasses - Grain contrast
Copper - Cu and all types of brasses - Grains and cracks
Copper - Cu and brasses - Grain contrast - General microstructure
Copper - Most types of Cu and Cu Alloys - Flow lines in brass
Copper - Verification of stresses in brass
Copper and copper alloys - All Copper and copper alloy
Copper and copper alloys - All brasses, produce brilliant, deep etch
Copper and copper alloys - Alpha anbd alpha + beta alloys
Copper and copper alloys - Brass - General macro etchant
Copper and copper alloys - Copper and all brasses - Grains; cracks and other defects
Copper and copper alloys - Copper and all brasses - Grains; cracks and other defects, reveal grain contrast
Copper and copper alloys - Copper, all brasses, aluminium bronze
Copper and copper alloys - Copper, high Cu alloys, phosphor bronze - Grain boundaries, oxide inclusions
Copper and copper alloys - For revealing the general macro-structure
Copper and copper alloys - Silicon brass, silicon bronze - General macrostructure
Copper and copper alloys - Suitable for revealing differences in alloy concentration
Copper and copper alloys - To reveal susceptibility to stress corrosion
Copper and its alloys - Brass - Strain lines
Copper and its alloys - Brilliant deep etch
Copper and its alloys - Cu and all brasses
Copper and its alloys - Cu and all brasses - Emphasizes grains and cracks
Copper and its alloys - Cu and all brasses - Good grain contrast
Copper and its alloys - Cu, high Cu alloys, P-Sn bronzes - Emphasizes grain boundaries and oxide inclusions
Copper and its alloys - Silicon brass or bronze
Copper plating
Cr alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cr plating - General macrostructure
Cr-Ni-Fe alloys - Etching of weld structures
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Cu and all brasses I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cu and all brasses II - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cu and all brasses III - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cu and brass - General macrostructure
Cu brass - General macrostructure
Cu specimens and copper alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cu specimens and copper alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Cu, Cu-Al alloys, brass - General macrostructure
Cu, brass - General macrostructure
Cu, high Cu alloys, phosphor bronze - General macrostructure
Cu, high Cu alloys, phosphorus, tin bronzes - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Cu-Ni-Sn alloy - Cu-15Ni-8Sn - General microstructure
Cu-free zinc alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
DeSy's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Dickenson's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Dix and Keller etchant - Al, Al-Cu alloys, Al-Si alloys - Chemical etching
Electroless copper plating 1
Electroless nickel 1 plating
Electroless nickel 2 plating
Electroless silver plating
Electrolytic cobalt plating
Electrolytic iron plating 1
Electrolytic iron plating 2
Electrolytic nickel plating
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Fe as grey iron specimens - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Fe specimens - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Fe thin films deposited by MBE on GaAs, (110) wafer - Polishing
Fe, low-alloy steels - General macrostructure
Fe, low-alloy steels - General microstructure
Fe-3.25% Si alloy - General microstructure
Fe3C steel specimens and iron specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Flick's etchant - Al, cast alloys
Flick's etchant - Aluminium - Pure Al, Cu-Al alloys - General macrostructure
Flick's etchant - Aluminium and its alloys - For 2xxx Al alloys, high Cu aloys
Flick’s etchant - 2XXX, high Cu alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Flinn's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Fry's No. 1 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Fry's No. 2 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure - General macrostructure
Fry's No. 4 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Fry's etchant (1) - Flow lines in low carbon N2 steels, Thomas steels
Fry's etchant - Iron and steel specimens - Mild steel specimens, Bessemer and high N2 steel specimens
Fry's etchant - Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Flow lines in low carbon N2 steel specimens
Fry's etchant, modified - Iron and steel specimens - Plain and alloy steel specimens
Fry’s etchant - Steels
Ge (111) wafer and spherical shot - Chemical etching
Ge, Si-B-P alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Gold - Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys - General macrostructure
Gold - Grain contrast
Gold, Pt and Pd alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Griffis and Spretnak's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
HA-36 (Co alloy) - General macrostructure
HS-31, HA-151, N-155 (Co alloys) - General macrostructure
Hafnium - Zicaloy-2 and Hf - General macrostructure
Hafnium - Zr and Hf and their alloys with small additional constituents - General macrostructure
Hafnium - Zr anf Hf and their alloys - General macrostructure
Hafnium and alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Hafnium and its alloys - Zircalloy - 2
Heppenstall etchant - Ni-based superalloys - General macrostructure
Heyn's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Heyn's etchant - Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Phosphorus segregation in low carbon steel specimens
Heyn's etchant - Steel specimens and cast iron - To reveal phosphorus segregations
High Ni-alloys - General macrostructure
High alloy steel specimens - Etching to reveal segregations
High alloy steels - Chemical etching
High alloy steels - Chemical etching
High speed steels - General macrostructure
High-Ni alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
High-alloy steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
High-alloy steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
High-alloy steels - General macrostructure
High-alloy steels - General macrostructure
High-alloy steels, stainless steels - General macrostructure
High-purity Al - General macrostructure
High-purity Al, Al-Mg alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Hume-Rothery's etchant - Al-Si alloys
Humfrey's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Humphrey’s etchant - Cast steels
Inconel 625 - Chemical etching
Inconel 625 - Chemical etching
Iodide Ti - General macrostructure
Iodide Ti alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Iron and steel specimens - High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens - High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens - High alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens - Plain and alloy steel specimens, high speed steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens - Plain and low alloy steel specimens - For grain size and weldments
Iron and steel specimens - Stainless steel specimens, high alloy steel specimens
Iron and steel specimens - Works well on 12% Cr steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Austenite and high temperature steel specimens
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Verification, arrangemnet, and distribution of Fe and Mn sulfide inclusions - Baumann's print
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Versatile etchant for alloyed and unalloyed steel specimen
Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Versatile, useful for Fe and steel specimens
Iron-, cobalt-, and nickel base high-temperature alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Jin's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Jodid (high-purity, iodide-process) Ti - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Keller's etchant - Al-Si alloys - Chemical etching
Keller's etchant - Determining grain structure in A356 aluminum
Keller's etchant - Ti-6% Al-4% V alloy, Ti-5% Al-2.75% Cr-1.25% Fe alloy, Ti-2.55% Al-3.75% Mn alloy - General macrostructure
Keller's etchant - Ti-Al-Mn, Ti-Al-V, and Ti-Al-Cr-Fe alloys, flow lines - Chemical etching
Keller's etchant, conc. - Al-Cu-Si alloys
Keller's etchant, concentrated - and Al alloys
Keller’s etchant - Al and Al alloys - Chemical etching
Klemm's etchant - Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Phosphorus distribution in cast steel specimens and cast iron
LeChatelier's No. 1 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
LeChatelier's No. 2 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Lead - General macrostructure
Lead - General macrostructure
Lead - Grain contrast - Welded seams - Layers
Lead - Pb containing Sb - Grain contrast
Lead - Pure and low alloy Pb - Removal of deformed layers
Lead and its alloys - Antimonial lead
Lead and its alloys - Antimonial lead - Bright etch, grain structure
Lead and its alloys - Antimonial lead - Chemical polish-etch
Lead and its alloys - Antimonial lead - For grain structure
Lead and its alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Lead and lead alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Lead and lead alloys - Development of microstructures and grain boundaries in lead
Lead and lead alloys - Pb-Sb alloys
Lepito's No. 1 etchant - Austenitic stainless steels, Ni-based alloys - General macrostructure
Lepito's No. I etchant - Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Lepito's No. II etchant - Ni-Cr-Fe alloys - General macrostructure
Lepito's etchant - Ni and its alloys - Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements - Etchant for nickel welds
Lepito's etchant - Stainless and high temperature ateel specimens - Austenitic stainless steel specimens and Ni base alloys
Lepito’s etchant I - Austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloys - Chemical etching
Lepito’s etchant II - Alloys containing Cr, Fe, and other elements II - Chemical etching
Low Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Low-Ni alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Macro etchant for Mg and Mg alloys
Macro etchant for Pb and Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Macro etchant for steels
Macro etchant for zinc base alloys - General macrostructure
Magnesium - Flow lines, grain sizes in cast material
Magnesium - Grain sizes and flow lines in cast and forged parts
Magnesium - Internal defects in cast ingots
Magnesium - Internal defects in cast ingots, segregations, flow lines in forged parts
Magnesium alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ21 and AZ31 alloys - Grain size
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ31B alloy - Flow pattern in forgings - Internal defects in cast slabs and ingots
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ31B alloy - General etch for defects in sand and die castings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ31B alloy - Germination on sand cast surfaces
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ31B, AZ61A , AZ80A alloys - Flow pattern in forgings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ61A and AZ80A alloys - Grain size and flow pattern
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - AZ61A and AZ80A alloys - Grain size, surface castings defects
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - Segregation of intermetallic compounds and associated cracks
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - ZK60A alloy - Flow lines in forgings
Magnesium and magnesium alloys - ZK60A alloys - Flow pattern and grain size
Maraging steel - General macrostructure
Maraging steel - General macrostructure
Marble's etchant - Austenitic stainless steels - General macrostructure
Marble's etchant - Fe-Ni and Fe-Co magnetic alloys - Chemical etching
Marble's etchant - Iron and steel specimens - Austenitic stainless steel specimens
Marble's etchant - Ni and its alloys - Nickel - For grain structure
Marble's etchant - Nickel - General macrostructure
Marble's etchant - Stainless and high temperature steel specimens - Austenitic stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Marble's etchant, modified - Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Marble's etchant, modified - Ni and its alloys - Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements
Marble’s etchant - Austenitic stainless steels and high-temperature alloys - Chemical etching
Marble’s etchant - Nickel - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Marts and Capes's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Meyer and Eichholz's No. 1 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Meyer and Eichholz's No. 2 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Meyer and Eichholz's No. 2 etchant - Nitrided DIN 1.8550(34CrAlNi7) steel specimens - Macro etching for segregation
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg and Mg alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Mg and Mg alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Mg and Mg alloys - General macrostructure
Mg and Mg alloys - Mg-Mn alloys, forgings, Mg-Zr alloys, castings
Mg and Mg alloys - Reveals grain structure and flow lines in forgings
Mg and Mg alloys - Reveals grain structure in heat treated castings and flow lines in forgings
Mg and Mg alloys - Reveals grain structure in heat treated castings and flow lines in forgings
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys (C-Alloy) - General macrostructure
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys (C-Alloy) - General macrostructure
Mg-Al-Zn-Mn alloys - General macrostructure
Mild steel, Bessemer and high N2 steel - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Mild steel, Bessemer iron & Hi N2 steels - Chemical etching
Mo, W, V - General macrostructure
Mo, W, V, Cb, and Ta alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Mo, W, V, Nb and Ta - General macrostructure
Mo, W, and V alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Molybdenum - Mo, W and V - General macrostructure
Molybdenum - Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys - General macrostructure
Ni and Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Ni and Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Ni and its alloys - Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements
Ni and its alloys - Alloys containing Cr, Fe and other elements - Grain structure
Ni and its alloys - High Ni alloys - Porosity and flow lines
Ni and its alloys - Low Ni alloys - Grain structure
Ni-alloys - General macrostructure
Ni-based superalloys - General macrostructure
Ni-based superalloys, Mar-M200, Udimet-700 - General macrostructure
Nickel - High alloy Ni, Ni-Cu alloy (Monel), Ni-Al, Ni-Fe alloys
Nickel - Inconel type alloys on Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe-Cr basis
Nickel - Low alloy Ni - Cracks, porosity
Nickel - Ni alloys containing Cr and Fe - Welding joints
Nickel - Ni and Ni base alloys, Bi-Cu alloys, Ni-Cr-Fe alloys
Nickel - Superalloys - General macrostructure
Nickel and nickel alloys - For revealing cracks, porosity, dendritic patterns in cast alloys
Nickel and nickel alloys - Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Fe alloys
Nickel and nickel alloys - Reveals cracks, porosity, etc.
Nickel base superalloy GTD111 - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Nickel superalloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Nickel superalloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Nickel superalloys - Grain size and texture are well revealed - Freckles are less easily seen
Nickel superalloys - Macrostructure clearly revealed
Nimonic alloys - Macro defects in the Nimonic alloys
Nimonic alloys - Macro defects in the Nimonic alloys
Nimonic, Ni-Cr-Co alloys, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys - General macrostructure
Nimonic, Ni-Cr-Co alloys, Ni-Cr-Co-Mo alloys - General macrostructure
Niobium - Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Nital (10%) - Steels
Nital - Cast irons - Used to reveal macrostructure in white irons
Nital etch procedures - Low alloy steels - Chemical etching
Nitrided steels - General macrostructure
Nitriding steels - General macrostructure
Nitroalloy - General microstructure
Nitrosulfuric acid etchant - Fe and most steels - General microstructure
OSD alloy MA956 - Fe-20Cr-4.5Al-0.5Ti-0.5Y2O3
Oberhoffer's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Oberhoffer's etchant - For macro etching of steel specimens
Oberhoffer's etchant - Iron, steel specimens, cast irons - Blowhole segregation, primary structure, fiber orientation
Oberhoffer's etchant - Steel specimens and cast irons - Etching to reveal sgregations
Osmium and alloy - Grain contrast
Osmium and alloy - Grain contrast
Osmium samples - Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys
Osmond's etchant - Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Oxide dispersed Ni-Cr-Al-Fe alloy - Ni-16Cr-4.2Al-0.2Fe-0.8/1.0Y2O3-1.6/2.0Al2O3 +C,N
Palladium alloy - Grain contrast
Palladium specimen - Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys
Palmerton's etchant - Zn alloys (with Cu) - General macrostructure
Palmerton's etchant 1 - Cu-containing Zn alloys
Pb alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pb and Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Pb and Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Pb and most alloys - General macrostructure
Pb-As-Sn-Bi alloys - General macrostructure
Pb-As-Sn-Bi alloys, grain-contrast etchant - Chemical etching
Pb-Sb alloys - General macrostructure
Pb-Sb alloys, grain-contrast etchant - Chemical etching
Pb-Sb alloys, grain-contrast etchant - Chemical etching
Pb-Sb-Cu alloys - General macrostructure
Pb-Sb-Cu alloys, grain-contrast etchant - Chemical etching
Phenol formaldehyde
Picral (4%) etchant - Cast irons - Used to reveal macrostructure in white irons
Plain & alloy steels & cutlery steels - Chemical etching
Plain and alloy steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Plain and alloy steels I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Plain and alloy steels II - Electrolytic etching - General macrostructure
Plain and alloy steels III - Electrolytic etching - General macrostructure
Plain and alloy steels, HSS, tool steels - Chemical etching
Plain and alloy steels, cutlery steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Plain and alloy steels, high-speed and tool steels, cutlery (12–14 % Cr) and stainless steels - General macrostructure
Plain and low-alloy steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Plain carbon & alloy steels - Chemical etching
Plain carbon & low alloy steels - Chemical etching
Plain carbon & low alloy steels - Chemical etching
Platinium alloy - Grain contrast
Platinum - Pt and Pt alloys - General macrostructure
Platinum specimens - Au, Pt alloys and Pd alloys
Poulton's etchant - Al alloys - General macrostructure
Poulton's etchant - Aluminium alloys - High purity Al, commercial purity Al, Al-Mn alloys, Al-Si alloys, Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg-Si alloys
Poulton's etchant - High purity Al, commercial purity Al, Al-Mn alloys, Al-Si alloys
Pt and Pt alloys - Electrolytic etching - General microstructure
Pt and Pt alloys - General macrostructure
Pt and alloys - Electrolytic etching - General macrostructure
Pt and alloys - Grain contrast
Pure Al - General macrostructure
Pure Be, fine grained Be, single crystals - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Pure Ge and Ge alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Pure Sb alloys, Sb-Bi alloys - General macrostructure
Pure Sn - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Pure Sn - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Pure Ti, Ti-base alloys, Ti-Al-Mo alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Pure U and U alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Pure U and most U alloys - Electrolytic etching - General macrostructure
Red brass specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Refractory metals (Mo, W, V) - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Refractory metals (Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta) - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Refractory metals (W, V, Nb, Ta) - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Reinhardt's etchant - Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - BLASIL-PS
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Citric acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Cyanide solution
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - ENDOX 114 (cyanide free)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - ENDOX 214 (containing cyanide)
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Hydrobromic acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Inhibited chloric acid
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - Molten NaOH
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - TICKOPUR J80 U
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - TICKOPUR R27
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - TICKOPUR R30
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - TICKOPUR RW 77
Removing rust (FeO[OH]) and scale from the steel surface - TRINOFORM FE 645
Rhodium and alloy - Grain contrast
Rhodium and alloys - Grain contrast
Rhodium specimens - Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys
Rosenhain and Haighton's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Ru and alloys, Os and alloys, Rh and alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Ru and alloys, Os and alloys, Rh and alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Ru, Os, Rh and alloys - General macrostructure
Ru, Os, Rh, Os and Rh alloys - General macrostructure
Russell's etchant - Pb-Sb alloys - General macrostructure
Russell’s etchant - Pb and Pb alloys
Ruthenium - Ru and Ru alloys, Os and Os alloys, Rh and Rh alloys - General macrostructure
Ruthenium and alloy - Grain contrast
Ruthenium and alloys - Grain contrast
SS & high Cr steel - Chemical etching
SS and high alloy steels - Chemical etching
Schrader's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Si brass, bronze - General macrostructure
Si-B-P alloys - General macrostructure
Si-B-P alloys - General macrostructure
Silicon brass or bronze - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Silver - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Silver - General macrostructure
Silver - Grain contrast
Silver - Grain contrast etching
Silver - pure Ag, grain-contrast etching
Sn alloys - General macrostructure
Sn, Sn-Sb amd Sn-Sb-Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Sn-Pb alloys (0.5% Pb) - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Sn-Pb alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Sn-Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Sn-Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Sn-Sb-Cu alloys, Al-Sn materials, high Sn-containing alloys - Chemical polishing
Sn-Sb-Cu alloys, Sn-Sb-Cu-Pb-Ni alloys - General macrostructure
Sn-Sb-Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Sn-rich bearing and thin plate - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Some Co-Cr alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Stainless and heat resistant steel specimens - General macro etchant
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens - Austenitic stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens - Iron, Co and Ni base high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens - Stainless steel specimens and high temperature alloys
Stainless and high temperature steel specimens - Stainless steel specimens and iron base high temperature alloys
Stainless steel specimens - Etching to reveal segregations, porosity, cracks
Stainless steels - General microstructure
Stainless steels and high temperature alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Stainless steels and iron base high-temperature alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Stainless steels, high-alloy steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Stead No. 1 etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Stead's No. I etchant - Steel specimens and cast irons - The etching solutions reveals phosphorus segregations
Stead's No. II etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Stead's No. II etchant - Steel specimens and cast irons - To reveal phosphorus segregations and cell structures in cast iron
Stead's etchant - Iron and steel specimens - Plain and alloy steel specimens
Stead's etchant - Used to reveal the eutectic cell number in gray cast irons
Stead’s etchant - Steels
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Grain surfaces, background dendrites
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Primary structure
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Primary structure
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Primary structure
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Primary structure
Steel specimens - Cast materials - Primary structure (grain surfaces clearly visible)
Steel specimens - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Steel specimens - Determination of sulpur distribution
Steel specimens - Roolled materials - Structure visible, defects partly visible
Steel specimens - To reveal flow lines
Steel specimens and cast irons - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Steel specimens and cast irons - General macroecthing of steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons - General macroecthing of steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons - General macroecthing steel specimens and cast irons
Steel specimens and cast irons - To reveal strain lines (stretcher's, Luder's lines)
Steels - General macrostructure
Sulphur printing - Steels
TD-nickel, TD-NiCrAl, Inconel, MA-754 - General macrostructure
Tantalum - Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Taub's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Ti alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Ti alloys - General macrostructure
Ti alloys - General macrostructure
Ti alloys - General macrostructure
Ti alloys - General macrostructure
Ti alloys, Ti-7% Mn alloy - General macrostructure
Ti alloys, Ti-Al-Mn alloys, flow lines, banded structure - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Ti alloys, idendification of alpha and beta Ti - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Ti-3% Al alloy, Ti-13% V-11% Cr-3% Al alloy, Ti-6% Al-4% V alloy - General macrostructure
Ti-4% Al-4% Mn alloy - General macrostructure
Ti-4% Al-4% Mn alloy - General macrostructure
Ti-5% Al-2.5% Sn alloy - General macrostructure
Ti-7% Al-4% Mo alloy - General macrostructure
Ti-Al-Mn alloys, flow lines - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Tin - For all types of Sn and Sn base alloys - Grain distribution
Tin - General macrostructure
Tin - General macrostructure
Tin - Sn rich bearing metals and white metals - General macrostructure
Tin and its alloys - Grain structure
Tin and tin alloys - General macroetching
Tin specimens - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Titanium - Differentiation of alpha and beta Ti
Titanium - Iodide Ti - General macrostructure
Titanium - Ti and Ti base alloys, Ti-Al-Mo alloys
Titanium - Welded seams - General macrostructure
Titanium alloys, welds - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Titanium and its alloys - Al-4Mo alloys
Titanium and its alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Titanium and its alloys - Ti alloys, De-smut Ti, -13 V, -11Cr, -3Al alloys
Tucker's etchant - Al and Al alloys
Tucker's etchant - Aluminium alloys - Commercial-purity alloys 1xxx series, Al-Mn alloys, Al-Si alloys, Al-Mg-Si alloys
Tucker's etchant - Aluminium and its alloys - For Al alloys except high Si castings
Tucker's etchant - Aluminium and its alloys - For high purity Al, 1xxx, 3xxx, 4xxx, 5xxx, 6 xxx Al alloys
Tucker's etchant - Determining grain structure in A356 aluminum
Tucker's etchant, dilute - Al alloys (except high Si-castings)
Tucker's etchant, modified - Al-3% Ag alloy, Al alloys
Tucker’s etchant - Al and Al alloys - Chemical etching
Tucker’s etchant - High purity A1, 1XXX, 3XXX, 4XXX, 5XXX, 6XXX alloys - Chemical etching
Tungsten samples - Mo, W and V
Tungsten samples - Mo, W, V, Nb, Ta and their alloys
Uddeholm etchant - Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Uranium - U and U alloys - General macrostructure
Uranium - U and most U alloys - General macrostructure
Used to reveal the eutectic cell number in gray cast irons
Vanadium samples - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Vanadium samples - Mo, W and V
Very pure Al - General macrostructure
Vilella and Beregekoff's etchant - Pb and most Pb alloys - General macrostructure
Vilella and Beregekoff's etchant - Pb-Sn alloys
Vilella's and Beregekoff's etchant - Pb-Sb alloys, grain boundary etchant - Chemical etching
Vilella's etchant - Fe, most steels, stainless steels - General macrostructure
Vilella's etchant - High-alloy steels - General macrostructure
Vilella's etchant - Iron and steel specimens - Stainless and high Cr steel specimens
Vilella’s etchant - Stainless and high-Cr steels - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Vitallium alloy - Vitallium is a pure cobalt chromium alloy free of nickel and beryllium
Voce's etchant - Pb-Sb alloys - General macrostructure
W, V, Cb, and Ta alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
W, V, Nb, Ta - General macrostructure
Warke amd McCall's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Watertoen Arsenal's etchant - Fe and most steels - General macrostructure
Wazau's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Whiteley's etchant - For iron and steels - General macrostructure
Worner and Worner's etchant - Pb-Sb alloys - General macrostructure
Y single crystal specimens - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Y3Fe5O12 (0001) (YIG) wafers - Chemical etching
ZK60A alloy - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
ZK60A alloy - General macrostructure
ZK60A alloy - General macrostructure
ZK60A alloy I - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
ZK60A alloy II - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Zeerleder's etchant - Al-Cu-Mg-Ni alloys
Zinc - Pure Zn, Zn alloys with Cu, cast materials
Zinc - Zn alloys containing Cu - General macrostructure
Zinc and its alloys - Cu free zinc alloys - Grain contrast
Zinc and its alloys - Zn alloys containing Cu - Grain structure
Zinc and zinc alloys - For general macroetching
Zircalloy-2, Hf - General macrostructure
Zirconium - Zicaloy-2 and Hf
Zirconium - Zr and Hf and their alloys with small additional constituents
Zirconium - Zr anf Hf and their alloys with high additional alloying constituents
Zirconium and alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Zn alloys (Cu-free) - General macrostructure
Zn alloys containing Cu - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Zn and Zn alloys - General macrostructure
Zn-base alloys - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Zn-rich alloys - General macrostructure
Zr polycrystalline blanks - Chemical etching - General microstructure
Zr, Hf, and low alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Zr, Hf, and low alloys - Chemical etching - General macrostructure
Zr, Hf, high Zr alloys, high-Hf alloys - General macrostructure
Zr, Hf, low-Zr alloys, low-Hf alloys - General macrostructure

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